María del Rosario García
Universidad del Rosario
Research and Innovation Article.
This article comprises of a tour of the library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres, a prolific reader in 17th century New Granada, Archbishop of Santafé de Bogotá and the founder of Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. The nature of this library is analyzed in comparison with others from the epoch, as well as some aspects related to the diffusion of knowledge in Spain and America, through the analysis of the texts donated to Colegio Mayor del Rosario by the archbishop. Likewise, this article presents some conclusions regarding the conditions of education in 17th century New Granada.
Key Words: History of the book, History of education, 17th century, Diffusion of knowledge.
Bibliotecas de la Nueva Granada del siglo XVII: La biblioteca de Fray Cristobal de Torres en el Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario*
El presente artículo es un recorrido por la biblioteca de Fray Cristóbal de Torres, lector del siglo XVII en la Nueva Granada, Arzobispo de Santafé de Bogotá y fundador del Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. En él se analiza la naturaleza de dicha biblioteca en comparación con otras de la época, así como aspectos relacionados con la circulación de saberes en España y América a partir del análisis de los textos donados por el Arzobispo al Colegio Mayor del Rosario. De igual manera, el artículo permite sacar conclusiones sobre las condiciones de la educación en la Nueva Granada del siglo XVII.
Palabras clave: Historia del libro, Historia de la educación, siglo XVII, circulación de saberes.
Bibliothèques de la Nouvelle Grenade du XVIIe siècle: La bibliothèque de Fray Cristóbal de Torres dans le Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario
Cet article fait un parcours par la bibliothèque de Fray Cristóbal de Torres, lecteur en Nouvelle Grenade du XVIIe siècle, Archevêque de Santafé de Bogota et fondateur du Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. Le texte analyse les traits de cette bibliothèque en tissant une comparaison avec d’autres de la même époque, ainsi que certains aspects de la circulation de savoirs en Espagne et en Amérique à partir de l’analyse des textes donnés par l’Archevêque au Colegio Mayor del Rosario. L’article permet de mieux comprendre la situation de l’éducation dans la Nouvelle Grenade du XVIIe siècle.
Mots clés: Histoire du livre, Histoire de l’éducation, XVIIe siècle, circulation de savoirs
The history of the book in Colombia has been strongly influenced by the history of mindsets. A significant part of the few studies on this subject are represented, leaving aside textual studies, by the catalogs of private libraries, notarial studies, histories of the printing press or are devoted to the history of literature, more focused on the production of books than on their reception. In turn, this limited range of topics is directly related to the fact that studies on the history of reading are practically non-existent. On the other hand, most of the studies on the book in the colonial period have been devoted to the study of books in the eighteenth century and their relation to the arrival of Enlightenment ideas in New Granada. This tendency is related to the long-held practice in traditional Colombian historiography of taking from the colonial past only what has been conceived as a precursor of the Independence. This also explains why the 16th and 17th centuries are dealt with very superficially in the histories as part of a homogeneous and uninteresting colonial past.
Within this approach is, for example, the text Recepción y difusión de textos Ilustrados, a compilation of articles and papers of the II European Congress of Latin Americanists. The text, although it contains valuable articles on the cultural field and the history of the book in the eighteenth century that constitute interesting contributions to the cultural history of the period, does not contain any article that refers, in a tangential way, to the subject of the practices of reading and readers; its interest is mainly focused on texts or ideas and their dissemination. The same can be said of the texts compiled by Eduardo Santa in El libro en Colombia, which also includes a series of articles on the history of printing. Similarly, the text of Pilar Jaramillo La producción intelectual de los Rosaristas 1700-1799 is a bibliographic catalog, which contains an introduction with interesting data on the uses of books by intellectuals and the circulation of books in America in the eighteenth century. In fact, the historian points out how, in the second half of the eighteenth century, a new generation of intellectuals emerged, characterized by a more intense use of books; because of a growing interest in the particular possession of them. Their scarcity sometimes led to high sums of money being paid for them and to a significant circulation of books, borrowed or given, among the small enlightened creole elite. Similarly, Jaramillo draws attention to the controls on the book trade and on the production of printed documents imposed by the Inquisition.
These histories of books suffer from one or more of the limitations that Chartier points out when setting out his account of the history of the book in France, which is explained by the strong influence exerted by the 'history of mentalities' on these authors. Most library cataloging works are used as sources for other works, which although useful in many cases, does not take into account the 'ways' of accessing and using books; the forms of appropriation and invention of meanings; the difference between books and text.
An important text in the Latin American context, for having questioned a series of already naturalized beliefs in the history of the conquest and colonization, is that of Irving Leonard, Los libros del conquistador (The Books of the Conquistador) . The book aims to "first, explore the possible influence of a popular form of literature on the minds, behavior and acts of its Spanish contemporaries in the sixteenth century; second, to describe the mechanism of the book trade in the New World; and third, to prove the universal diffusion of the Spanish literary culture through the extensive Hispanic world of that time.” The fundamental contribution of Leonard's book, besides establishing an interesting articulation between the diffusion and commercialization of books, has been to break with the belief, propitiated by the "black legend", that Spain had kept its American colonies in a kind of intellectual obscurantism. Leonard's study shows how there was a large book trade between the metropolis and its colonies, so that the cultural distance was not so great as had been thought.
Maria Teresa Cristina's article on literature in the conquest and the colony in New Granada, published in La Nueva Historia de Colombia (The New History of Colombia), although it focused on the production of books, Cristina relies on research such as that of Irving Leonard , Rivas Sacconi and Torre Revello, which demonstrates how there was a wide circulation of books among the literate minority of Spanish America and how these books were not restricted to those of a purely religious and moralizing nature. Indeed, in New Granada, even considering the smallness of the society (which cannot be compared with those of Peru or New Spain), all kinds of books circulated, even those prohibited, as in the case of an annotated example by Bartholomeus Vespucius, Oratio de laudibus astrologiae, belonging to Brother Cristobal de Torres, and those of a literary nature such as the 103 copies of the first edition of El Quijote that arrived in Cartagena in 1605, the same year as its publication. A good example of this is the catalog of the 1060 volume library of Don Fernando de Castro y Vargas (a contemporary and acquaintance of Brother Cristóbal de Torres) published by Guillermo Hernández de Alba and commented on by Rafael Martínez Briceño, which shows a great variety of subjects, ranging from the classics to contemporary literature (Lope de Vega, Góngora, Quevedo, Tirso de Molina, Cervantes, among others).
The second part of the text by Renán Silva Los ilustrados de Nueva Granada 1760-1808. Genealogía de una comunidad de interpretación, should also be highlighted, dedicated in its entirety to books, their trade and circulation; libraries, readings and readers, and writing, work and the public. Although the book is focused on the eighteenth century, Silva makes a short but interesting analysis of the trade and circulation of books in colonial society, analyzing various inventories of seventeenth-century libraries. Similarly, it includes a chapter on the new practices of reading in the eighteenth century, "more private and closer to the daily activities of the subject ..., and at the same time, a type of reading ordered and built in relation to more immediate objects". Its inclusion is important because it constitutes a breaking away from the approaches that have traditionally been given to the history of books, education and culture in Colombia, being one of the few studies that establish links between the history of reading and the uses of books and the educational field.
Finally, it is necessary to cite the degree project of Catalina Muñoz Rojas, Una historia de la lectura en la Nueva Granada: el caso de Juan Fernández de Sotomayor. This research studies the case of a parish priest of Mompox at the end of the colony (1808-1819) who wrote the Catecismo Político o Instrucción Popular, which refutes the legitimacy of the conquest of America and defends the right of Americans to govern themselves. The author asks how Juan Fernández de Sotomayor elaborated his speech and from where he obtained the concepts that formed it. To answer these questions the researcher focuses on the ways in which the pastor received, appropriated and used his readings, giving them an interpretation and meaning of their own. Although the work refers to a different historical moment from the one that is dealt with in this article, its approach is very valuable in that it focuses on the problem of the reception and appropriation through analysis of the writings of the subject, constituting itself as one of the few works that have been done in the field of the history of reading.
2. The library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres in Santafé de Bogotá
The library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres is part of the collection of old books of the Historical Archive of the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario (AHCMNSR, by its acronym in Spanish). It is a collection of books belonging to the Archbishop of Santafé and the founder of the Colegio Mayor, which were taken out of open circulation and included in the archive at the beginning of the 19th century. The catalog of the library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres was elaborated from the revision of the books of the Historical Archive that were published before 1653, the year in which Brother Cristóbal died. For the preparation of the catalog, more than 700 books were revised, of which only 175 were selected, corresponding to those marked as belonging to Brother Cristóbal de Torres, either because they are signed with his name or because they say they belong to the Archbishop of Santafé. There are some volumes that for their subject and date of publication could have belonged to the founder; some of them could have been marked but they lack the page of the cover where Brother Cristóbal used to mark his books. These were classified as doubtful and did not enter into the analysis referred to in this article. The themes established in the catalog are in accordance with the classification of the Historical Archive of the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario.
The catalog of 175 books is the primary source on which this article is based. It should be noted that this set of books, belonging to the founder of the Universidad del Rosario, does not constitute a source to determine the cultural heritage of this subject, since they are simply the books that Brother Cristóbal donated to the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. His personal library may contain other books, of which we do not know their fate. What we can know for sure is that Brother Cristóbal had access to, and read, a number of works that are not included in this catalog. These readings are known through the books he cited in his writings and which differ from those donated to the Colegio Mayor del Rosario. We find in his writings an infinity of quotations and references not only to Saint Thomas and the Scriptures, but also to a great variety of holy theologians, philosophers, Latin poets, and exegetes. Augustine,
The books in the catalog are those found in the Historical Archive of the Universidad del Rosario. It is not known whether Brother Cristóbal had other books in Santafé de Bogotá. However, the catalog of this library is important because it can shed light on what this subject considered important in terms of the knowledge of the time and what was the knowledge that Brother Cristobal considered important for the study of law, theology and medicine.
In contrast to what Renán Silva says about seventeenth-century libraries being made up mostly of theological texts and religious preaching, the library that was preserved by Brother Cristobal de Torres in the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario contained 67.3% law books, within which 81% corresponded to civil, criminal and procedural law and only 19% to canon law. The other books covered various subjects such as theology, sacred scriptures, patrology, astronomy, medicine, history, philosophy, and politics, without the strictly religious books predominating. The latter constitute 16.8% of the total of the books of the library, that is to say, less than the set of other non-religious subjects other than law.
Now, this statement must be qualified by the fact that in the seventeenth century the limits between what can be considered a religious book and one that is not can be quite diffuse. In fact, the boundaries between the various disciplines were neither clear nor blunt, as noted by F. Copleston when referring to Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), one of the greatest representatives of the so-called Spanish neo-scholasticism:
[…] In his preface to 'De legibus ac Deo legislatore' (1612) Suarez observes that no one should be surprised to find a professional theologian embarking on a discussion of the law. The theologian contemplates God not only as God is in Himself, but also as the ultimate end of man. This means that the theologian is interested in the path to salvation. Now, salvation is achieved through free acts and moral rectitude; and moral rectitude depends to a great extent on the law, considered as the norm of human acts. Theology, then, must comprehend the study of law[...] It may be objected that the theologian, even if he legitimately attends to divine law, should refrain from dealing with human law. But every law ultimately derives its authority from God; and it is justified that the theologian should deal with all types of law […].
For Suárez, there was no definite boundary between theology and law. However, the fact that he has been preoccupied with explaining in the preface of his book why a theologian can and must deal with matters of civil law also shows that as early as the seventeenth century, Spanish had begun to form the disciplinary boundaries so characteristic of modernity, and that theology had already lost some of its power over philosophy and other disciplines. The preface of Suarez, despite defending the diffuse boundaries between theology and law, allows the civil law books to be considered as non-religious books in the strictest sense, since these limits were beginning to be established.
In the case of other libraries contemporaneous with that of Brother Cristóbal, such as that of Don Fernando de Castro y Vargas, we can find differences that are related to the fact that the library of Brother Cristobal de Torres that we are analyzing in this article, was probably not the entirety of his personal library, as already noted. Don Fernando de Castro y Vargas held the office of priest of the Cathedral of Santafé as from 1648, when Brother Cristobal de Torres acted as Archbishop in that same cathedral. He was a contemporary of another recognized scholar, Lucas Fernandez de Piedrahita, who held the position of canon in the same cathedral, and of whom it is known, possessed an important library. Another contemporary of the ecclesiastics already mentioned was the poet Hernando Domínguez Camargo, a "native of Santa Fe de Bogotá, who had made the stylistic technique of Góngora his own and composed the poem of the life of St. Ignatius of Loyola in robust octaves" and also possessed an important library of which we only know that it was bequeathed to the Jesuits.
Most of the 1060 volumes of the Castro y Vargas library were works of theology, rules, biblical matters, and other religious topics. As well as in the library that Brother Cristóbal donated to the Colegio del Rosario, almost all the important authors of theology from Saint Thomas to Suarez, including Domingo de Soto, Bañez and Cajetan, are represented in his library. Classical, Greek and Roman letters abound in his library, as well as various texts of the course of arts such as rhetoric, parnassus, grammar and lexicons. There are also 58 manuscript books: "matters that the said doctor heard; handbooks from grammar, rhetoric, arts and theology. From grammar to theology, there are fifty-eight books to hand." That is to say, the famous "weighty tomes" were part of his library that the students wrote from the dictatio, and that, surely, correspond to the courses that Castro y Vargas himself "heard" in his time as a student.
Some of the classical authors of his library are: Caesar, Valerius, Cato, Juvenal, Persio, Martial, Horacio, Lucan, Virgil, Plutarch, Terence, Tibullus, Cicero, Xenophon, Valerius Maximus, Seneca, Prudentius, Ovid, Isocrates, Herodias, Ausonius, Titus Livius, Aristotle, Diogenes, Donatus, Sallust, Pliny, Valerius Flaco, Catullus, Lucanus, Flavian Josephus, Suetonius, Juventius, Flaminius, Quintus Curtius, Terence, Aesop, and others. From the contemporary literary authors can be enumerated Cervantes, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, Quevedo, Villamediana, Garcilaso de la Vega, Góngora, Luis Carrillo and Sotomayor, thus verifying the rapid diffusion that these authors had in America. Among the scientific books are the Tractatus de Sphaera
(On the Sphere of the World) and Ephemerides by Sacrobosco, the Repertorio de los tiempos by Rodrigo Zamorano, the works of mathematics and natural philosophy of Pérez de Moya, the Tratado de navegación by García de Céspedes and a treatise on agriculture, among others. There is also Dante, Torcuato Tasso, Sannazaro, Policiano, Mateo Vegio and Paulo Manucio representing the Italian letters. Two books of the library are cataloged in the Índice as prohibited: a work of Erasmus not specified by the scribe who made the inventory and one Tratado de los planetas, whose author is not mentioned.
Unlike the library of Brother Cristóbal, where there is only one work of an American author, in the library of Castro y Vargas can be found at least 15 works written in America, some of which were published in Mexico.
According to the analysis of the catalog of the library of Castro y Vargas made by Renan Silva, 54% of the books are on theology, 23% on letters and humanities (books on the Latin and Greek classics, grammar), 8% on law, 6% on philosophy and 8% that Silva catalogs as 'various'. In this case it is the personal library of the canon, composed of more than 1000 volumes that appear in the notarial inventory made in 1665 and in which the books of law, for example, constitute a minimum percentage, the most important being theology and letters and humanities. The case of Castro y Vargas is that of a subject whose "profile" was more of a "scholar than enthusiast of the “summae"", as Silva affirms. Contrary to this, the library of another contemporary, the oidor Gabriel Alvarez de Velasco y Zorrilla, contains a large presence of books of theology and humanities, but can be cataloged, according to Silva, as a specialized library of a professional jurist.
As for the case of the library in question, the small number of religious books does not mean that Brother Cristobal disdained the study of religious subjects. On the contrary, the basis of all knowledge, necessary to study in any faculty, was centered on the verses of Saint Thomas:
We order that no one can in the Colegio hear any other faculty, without having first heard the verses of Saint Thomas, for many reasons. The first is because it is not fair for them to hear the theology of Saint Thomas, without first being founded on the verses of Saint Thomas. The second, because medicine also needs this foundation. The third is that laws and canons cannot be consummated without this prevention, as we are taught by logical truths; and without these fundaments, they are not consummately canonists, nor legists and without them, the teachers of the canons and laws are remarkably enhanced, as experience shows; and our desire is, to leave the college famous canonists and lawyers[...]
The predominance of law books can be explained, rather, in the light of the cultural conditions of seventeenth-century Spain, that is, it is related to the proliferation of law studies and lawyers in the peninsula and to the fact that the law was considered in the Spain of the time as the best employment option for impoverished Spaniards. Brother Cristóbal sought to offer a possibility of employment to Spaniards and the lay creoles and secular clergy of New Granada through the founding of the Colegio Mayor, as expressed in several of his letters. One of them is the letter of protest by Brother Cristóbal de Torres against the Dominican priests who wanted to appropriate the Colegio. There he explains the reasons why he wanted to revoke the appointment of the Dominican Rector and Vice Rector, stating, among other reasons, that "they wanted to make a house of religion, which according to the foundation and license of His Majesty was for secular schoolboys, wanting to destroy our intent and deliberate will so to the universal detriment of the common good of all this Kingdom." Hence the insistence that the Colegio Mayor was directed to the laity and the importance that Brother Cristóbal granted to the Faculties of Law and Medicine. On the other hand, it is very probable that Brother Cristóbal made frequent use of these books of law during the exercise of his Archbishopric for the various lawsuits that he had, including that of the Dominicans. In fact, writes Brother Cristobal in one of his letters: "... it seems to us very certain to have seen very serious authors who knowingly assure us that we can revoke that donation ...” .
It is not surprising then, that most of the books donated to the Colegio Mayor del Rosario, and owned by the founder, were books of law. The medical books, 11 in all, constitute the third most important group, for the same reasons, that is, because of the importance that Brother Cristóbal granted to the teaching of medicine in the New Kingdom of Granada.
It should be noted, however, that the faculty which functioned the most consistently from the beginning was that of theology, and there were very few graduates in law and medicine during the seventeenth century. This may indicate that in New Granada, unlike Spain, the office of lawyer was still not considered a safe alternative for survival and that theology was still considered as the highest and most prestigious knowledge. In addition, it must be taken into account that most of the public offices were occupied by Spanish lawyers, appointed in Spain, a circumstance that may also explain the lack of legal studies in New Granada. It is also worth mentioning that it was precisely this impossibility of access to public offices that generated, a century and a half later, an important part of the creole discontent that led to the independence movement. Brother Cristóbal wanted to deliver to New Granada an educational project that still could not be fully applied, given not only the cultural differences (the primacy of theology, for example), but also political (the impossibility of Spanish Americans to access public offices).
3. Circulation of knowledge
The books of law and medicine of the library donated by Brother Cristobal de Torres to the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario are a good example of the kind of knowledge that circulated in the peninsula and which was transmitted to the students of these faculties. In the case of law books, the primacy of civil law (79 books) indicates the very strong emphasis in Brother Cristóbal's intention to educate subjects for public administration which, as already stated, constituted the main source of employment at the time in Spain and in America, after the crisis of the encomienda, with the qualifications already noted. Civil law was then fundamental knowledge, and within this stand out the books of great jurists such as Bartolus de Saxoferrato (1313-1357) , Italian jurist, professor at the University of Peruggia and one of the great commentators on the code of Justinian. He is classified as a post-glossator or 'commentista', to differentiate him from the glossators of the 11th to 13th centuries, who made the reconstruction and classification of the Corpus Iuris Civilis by Justinian (Digesto Vetus, Digesto Novus, Digesto Infortiatum). The glossators made innumerable annotations to the Digesto, but at the same time they were very attached to the literal interpretation of the code, although many of the laws of Justinian (6th century) were already obsolete. The importance of Bartolus de Saxoferrato is that he was the first jurist who tried to reform the law to fit the new historical conditions and not force the facts to fit the letter of the law as did his predecessors.
Another important author of the catalog is Jason of Mayno Mediolanensis (1435-1519), Italian jurist, professor of the Universities of Padua, Pisa and Pavia. Commentator of the gloss, he is considered by some as the last jurist of the school of Saxoferrato. Among his works are Comentarios a todo el Digesto, Código y Usus feudales. Brother Cristóbal left several volumes of this author in the library (see annexed catalog), some of them with annotations.
Among the jurists that appear most prolifically in the library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres are Ubaldus Perusinus Baldus (1327-1400) , Italian jurist, pupil of Saxoferrato; Jacobus Menochius (1532-1607); Sebastianus Naebius Lipsiensis (1563-1643); Pablo de Castro, who along with Jason de Mayno was one of the great "bartolistas", as the followers of Bartolus de Saxoferrato and Baldus were called, who have been accused of abusing the principle of authority in their writings. It should be noted that the principle of authority was the method that was used in the Middle Ages and was still used in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It meant that in order to defend an argument it was considered sufficient to resort to the opinion of a recognized authority. Bartholomeus Socinus Senensis (1436-1507), of the same school is also found, but who was more measured in his citations, according to Carpintero, and Iacobus Cuiacus, I.C. (1522-1590), all recognized jurists. These same books were those that were studied in the faculties of law of Spain and France and they circulated throughout Europe. All these books were written in Latin, which in the seventeenth century remained the language of knowledge and they were published mostly in Lyon (33), Frankfurt (15), Turin (11) and Venice (8), where some of the most prolific print shops were to be found (see annexed catalog).
The second largest group of books after those of civil law are those of canon law (21 in total), also explainable because canon law was indispensable for the articulation of the Church with the State, especially "in a setting like that offered by the Royal Patronage of the Indies, in which, from the administrative point of view, the Church was subject to the State." Canon law included all the norms and legal regulations of the internal and external relations of the Church. In the case of canon law, the variety of authors is greater, Abbas Panormitanus (1386-1445) (see annexed catalog) being the most important, a Benedictine, expert in canon law, and professor of the Universities of Parma, Siena and Bologna. The work possessed by Brother Cristóbal, Commentaria in decretales, was precisely that which earned him great authority. Other important authors of canon law are Carolus Ruinus Regiensis (1456-1530) (see annexed catalog) and Brother Domingo de Soto (1494-1560) (see annexed catalog), one of the great Dominican authorities in theology and law, and one of the authors that Brother Cristóbal cites in the Constituciones, as the author he had studied in Spain: "... and so we study, hearing in voice the course of the wise father Brother Domingo de Soto.” Domingo de Soto was a disciple of Francisco de Vitoria and a defender of the position of Bartolome de las Casas with respect to the condition of equality with which the Indians should be treated. Brother Cristóbal, who studied the books of Soto, applied this position in Santafé in defending the right of the Indians to communion, to eliminate "... the pernicious abuse that is established in the Indies, principally in this kingdom, of denying Communion to the Indians, almost universally, even at the hour of death." The denial of Communion to the Indians was part of the thesis that defended the inferiority of the Indians with respect to the Spaniards and which was the object of a complex debate in the sixteenth century in Valladolid, a debate that Domingo de Soto participated in, defending the position of the priest de las Casas. The position of Brother Cristóbal with respect to the debate on the Indians is clear, as is his position within the Dominican school that predominated in Salamanca, as evidenced by the texts chosen to donate to the library of the Colegio Mayor del Rosario. In academic terms, Brother Cristóbal was part of the new Dominican scholasticism. On the other hand, Domingo de Soto was one of the most read authors in America along with the theologian Bartolomé de Medina, judging by the lists of books published by Irving Leonard.
Medical books (11 in total) constitute the third group. The most important authors are Galeno (130-200) and his commentators, like López Canario and Antonio Brasavolus see annexed catalog). Also, the work of F. Gentilis on Avicenna is found. Brother Cristóbal put a lot of effort into creating a Faculty of Medicine, given the need for doctors in New Granada, as was already established in the previous chapter. This is how the Royal decree of Felipe IV gave license to open a Faculty of Medicine:
I hereby grant and concede to the said Archbishop the license and authority to found the college in the City of Santa Fe, with the same honors and privileges as those enjoyed by the Archbishop of Salamanca, and to read to the collegians […] the doctrine of Saint Thomas, jurisprudence, and medicine, by people who graduated from these faculties[...]
However, this faculty only came to work truly at the eighteenth century, as was already noted.
The next subject in importance by the number of volumes is the one of sacred scriptures, with a total of 10 books. It mainly deals with commentaries on the books of the Old Testament, written by theologians. The most important author is Caietanus Cardinalis (Thomas de Vio) (see annexed catalog) (1469-1534). Cajetan, born in Gaeta, was one of the great representatives of scholasticism in Italy and, in addition to the commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, he was recognized above all for his comments on Saint Thomas and a conception of the analogy that exerted a very strong influence among the Thomists. His books had a wide circulation in America and Europe and he was one of the authors most studied by the Dominicans. The books donated by Brother Cristóbal are 4 volumes with commentaries on the Pentateuch, the historical books, the Psalms and the book of Job. There are also commentaries on several books of the Old Testament of the Jesuit Nicolas Serarius (see annexed catalog) (1555-1609), which Brother Cristóbal quotes in his writings.
Likewise, there is a commentary by Alvarez de Medina (see annexed catalog) on the book of Isaiah, one by Octavius Tufo (see annexed catalog) on the Ecclesiastes and the volume by the Jesuit Ioannes Antonius Velázquez (see annexed catalog) on the Psalms. These books of the Old Testament, often quoted by Brother Cristobal in his writings, were widely used in the Spain of the Golden Age, especially among the moralists who were followers of stoicism, who took a particular form in the peninsula as described by Ángel del Río: "Facing the 'support and renunciation' of Epictetus, the Spanish moralist says 'endure and wait' ". He further adds: "Seneca's severe morality is now reinforced by the resignation of the Book of Job and by the echo of the ‘vanitas vanitatum’", as shown, for example, in La cuna y la sepultura by Francisco de Quevedo, precisely the same book that he dedicated to Brother Cristóbal de Torres.
Criminal law is represented by 9 books, in a great majority by the Roman jurist Prosperus Farinacius (1554-1618). There are the 7 volumes of his complete work. There are, in addition, two volumes by Ioannes Zilettus, both of them great jurists of the time.
Dogmatic theology, for its part, is represented by several authors of great importance at that time in the peninsula. Most of these books were published in Spain (Salamanca, Alcalá de Henares, Valladolid). Most notable is Francisco Suárez (1548-1617) (see annexed catalog), scholar, polymath, professor, theologian, jurist and the highest representative of Jesuit Neo-Scholasticism, a great commentator on Saint Thomas, and Bartolomé de Medina (see annexed catalog), who also made a commentary on Saint Thomas.
There are 7 books of astronomy, packed into a single volume whose central work is the The Sphere of the World by Joannes de Sacrobusto or Sacrobosco (John of Holywood). This is a treatise based on the astronomy of Ptolemy that constituted the fundamental textbook of astronomy between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sacrobusto (1195-1256) was an English Augustinian monk, and professor of astronomy at the University of Paris. He wrote his The Sphere of the World in 1220 and thereafter it was the most studied book of astronomy in European universities until the eighteenth century, when the Church finally accepted the heliocentric theses of Copernicus and Galileo and astronomy changed radically. It was the first book of astronomy that was printed in 1472 and by the year 1570 the book had more than 120 editions in several European cities, among which the one of Brother Cristóbal of 1508 is counted. Translations also proliferated, like that of the cosmographer Jerónimo de Chaves, into Castilian in 1545, where he not only translated the The Sphere of the World but also added a series of tables, confirmations and commentaries. This shows how important the book was in the sixteenth century.
The miscellany of astronomy also contains a short commentary by Bartholomeo Vespucius, Oratio de laudibus astrologiae, which was found in the Index of prohibited books and is noted, like all other books in this volume. The tradition of the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario has long considered that the annotations in this miscellany are the work of Brother Cristóbal. However, after a careful analysis of the writing, there are great doubts about whether Cristóbal himself was the author of these annotations, as was the traditional belief in the Colegio Mayor del Rosario.
There are 6 books on patrology, most of which consist of the works of holy bishops and pontiffs containing sermons and homilies. Some of them, such as those of Saint Leo the Great and Saint Ambrose are common on shipping lists and in American libraries.
There are few books of history contained in the library. The Historia General de España by the Jesuit Father Juan de Mariana (1536-1624) stands out, one of the most read works in Spain at the time, as evidenced by its many reprints, and the Monarchia Ecclesistica by the Franciscan Father Juan de Pineda (1513 -1593), works that are also very common in American libraries.
Other topics such as procedural law, apologetics, philosophy, probationary law, mysticism, politics, preaching and moral theology are represented by very few volumes. Among these is the book by Juan de Solórzano Pereira (1575-1655), De Indiarum Iure, which was at the center of the discussion on the legitimacy of the Spanish dominion of American lands that took place at the Universidad de Salamanca. The copy of Brother Cristóbal, annotated and underlined, is from 1639.
The two books on philosophy also stand out. The first is a curious example, not only because it is an incunabulum (1473), but also because it appears as authored by Thomas Aquinas but apparently it is an apocryphal book for which the term 'pseudo' has been added to the author's name. It is not certain that the book has been read by Brother Cristóbal as it is annotated and underlined with many different types of letters and notations. The other copy of philosophy is a book by Erasmus of Rotterdam, Opus de conscribendis epistolis and Parabolarum sive similium liber ab autore recognitus, also included in the Index of banned and expurgated books of 1612, which prohibited or expurgated (as in the case of these two books), an important part of the writings of Erasmus. The book is signed by Brother Cristóbal but the annotations and underlining are, mostly, made by another reader, whose signature also appears in the copy. Erasmus was one of the most read authors in the peninsula in the sixteenth century, influencing in an important way the Spanish humanism of authors like Juan Luis Vives and Juan de Valdés, until he was prohibited and included in the Index. His books, as noted by Irving Leonard, were widely read in America:
The repressive measures of the Counter-Reformation suppressed the name and influence of the author of 'The Praise of Folly' from the Spanish-speaking world less completely than is claimed. As this and subsequent documents show, Erasmus's writings that were not included in the ‘Index of prohibited books' were shipped openly to the Spanish Indies, where they were read without special modesty.
Such is the case of the Opus de conscribendis epistolis, the work possessed by Brother Cristobal, which can be found in several of the shipping lists transcribed by Leonard, but which, however, was expurgated as was already noted.
4. By way of synthesis
In this article, we made a tour of the library of Brother Cristobal de Torres, a prolific reader of the seventeenth century in New Granada, Archbishop of Santafé de Bogotá and founder of the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario. The pass through his library shows us several peculiarities that require attention. On the one hand, it was not his personal library, of which little is known, but rather a library that Brother Cristóbal donated for the establishment of the Colegio Mayor; the constitutions of this college, however, clearly differentiated it from the educational institutions existing in Santa Fe de Bogotá in the mid-seventeenth century, since they established an express restriction on ecclesiastical governing and training, in the midst of a cultural context in which education was almost strictly concentrated in religious communities and oriented almost completely towards the task of evangelization. This explains why almost 70% of the books that make up this library are about law, and for the most part about civil law; strictly religious books constitute only 17% of the books acquired for teaching. It must be considered here, however, that this was a historical moment in which the fields of theology were being narrowly defined from other knowledge, including law and medicine, but in this respect, it must be considered that the particular decision of the Archbishop of Santa Fe was in this case in favor of the secular disciplines, not because of the desire to break with the New Granada tradition, but because of the desire to continue with the tradition of Salamanca.
The decision of the Archbishop of Santa Fe in favor of law and medicine is explicable from a historical and cultural point of view. This religious man wanted to open spaces for Spaniards and secular creoles within the labor market of New Granada, not only because of the crisis of the encomienda that affected the income of the non-indigenous population, but also for the perception of the positive results that this policy had had in Spain, where the scholars had found a mechanism of social and professional mobility by means of their insertion in educational institutions.
The library also allows us to reflect on the circulation of knowledge in New Granada, and to discuss the thesis of isolation that is usually proposed for its description during the seventeenth century. Along with other libraries of the time located in Santa Fe de Bogotá, it is observed that the group of literary authors, and of the diverse disciplines, correspond to the set of authors "in fashion" in peninsular Spain at the beginnings of the 17th century, referring to the authors who specialized in law and jurisprudence, as well as in relation to the authors of literary works of the golden century. It is not, however, proposed that knowledge circulated widely in all spheres of the society of New Granada, since there were indeed important restrictions on access to knowledge derived from the limitations on entering educational centers (a condition of old Christians and purity of blood) and language (a large amount of the works were written in Latin), but the existence of several established communities of interpretation can be presumed among the small group of creoles and Spaniards.
Catalogue of the library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres
Hosius Cardenalis D. Stanislaus, Opera. Confessio cath. fidei. Propugnatio verae doctrinae adversus Io. Brentium. De expreso Dei verbo. Dialogus de eo, num calices laicis, et uxores sacerdotibus permitti, ac divina off. vulgari lingua agere fas sit, Lugduni, imp. Iac Iuntae, 1564, vol. 1, pags. 750, 34x22.
Caietanus Cardinalis (Thomas de Vio), Commentarii illustres in quinque Mosaicos libros, annotationibus a F. Antonio Fonseca Lusitano, Parisiis, imp. Guill. de Bossozel, 1539, vol. 1, pags. 512, 34x22. (Con anotaciones)
Caietanus Cardinalis (Thomas de Vio), In authenticos Veteris Testamenti historiales libros Commentarii, Romae, imp. Antonii Bladi Asulani, vols. 1, 1533, pags. 398, 32x22. (2 anotaciones)
Caietanus Cardinalis (Thomas de Vio), Liber Psalmorum ad verbum ex hebraeo versorum, vol. 1, pags. 281, 32x22. (Con anotaciones)
Caietanus Cardinalis (Thomas de Vio), In librum Iob commentarii et respontio ad censuras (XIV) Parisiensium, Romae, imp. Anto. Bladii, 1535, vol. 1, pags. 140, 29x21.
Pinto, Fray Héctor, In Ezechielem prophetam commentaria, Salamanticae, imp. Ildefonsi a Terranova, 1581, vol. 1, pags. 654, 29x21. Expensis Lucae a Iunta ed.
S. Gregorius, Papa, Opera Omnia, Parisiis, imp. Claudii Chevallonii, 1633, vol. 1, pags. 465, 40x26.
S. Leo Magnus Romanus Pontifex, Opera omnia quaereperiri potuerunt, Parisiis, imp. Claudii Morel, 1614, vol. 1, pags. 539, 35x23, ed. Ioannis Vlimmerii.
S. Maximus Taurinensis Episcopus, Homiliae, Parisiis, imp. Claudii Morel, vol. 1, pags. 546, 703, 35x23, ed. Ioannis Vlimmerii, an. 1614.
S. Petrus, Chrisologus Archiepiscopus Ravennatis, Sermones, Parisiis, imp. Claudii Morel, 1614, vol. 1, pags. 445, 35x23, ed. Ioannis Vlimmerii.
Choquetus, O. P. Hyacinthus, De origine gratiie sanctificanis, libri tres, Duaci, imp. Balth. Belleri, vols. 2, 1633, pags. 878 y 878, 22x17. (Duplicado. Son dos ejemplares del mismo libro?)
González de Albeida, Ioannes, Commentriorum et disputationum in primam partem Angelici Doc. D. Thomae, primus tomus, Compluti, imp. Io. Gratiani, 1621, vol. 1, pags. 987, 30x21.
Medina, F. Bartholomeus, Expositio in tertiam Partm Divi Thomae, Salamanticae, imp. Mathiae Gasti, 1584, vol. 1, pags. 1132, 29x21.
FALSE RELIGIONS. SUPERSTITIONS
Vespucius, Barholomeus, Oratio de laudibus astrologiae, Venetiis, imp. Io. Rubei & Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 4, 31x22. (Con anotaciones y autógrafo de Fray Cristóbal).
Solórzano, Ioannes de, De Indiarum Iure, tomus alter, sive de justa Indiarum Occidentalium gubernatione, Madrid, imp. Francis. Martínez, 1639, vol. 1, pags. 1706, 30x21.
Farinacius, I. C. Prosperus, Opera omnia, Praxis criminalis, L. 2. Decis. S. Rotae, etc., Duaci et Lugduni, imp. Wyon, Cardon, Keerbergii (Antuerpiae), 1616/20, vols. 14, 34x25.
Zilettus, Ioannes Baptista, U.I.D., Consiliorum sive responsorum ad causas criminales ex jurisconsultis veteribus et novis, Venetiis, imp. Francisci Ziletti, 1582 y 1579, 30x21.
Anguiano, Christophorus de, Tractatus de legibus et constitutionibus Principum et aliorum judicum Ordinariorum, tomus I, Granatae, imp. P. de la Cuesta, 1620, vol. 1, pags. 552, 29x20.
Azpilcueta Navarri, Martinus, Commentaria et tractatus hucusque editi et in tres tomos distincti Tomus III, Venetiis, imp. Damiani Zenarii, 1588, vol. 1, pags. 163, 34x22.
Baldus de Perusio, Opus aureum super feudis cum additionibus D. Andreae Barbaciae necnon aliorum clarissimorum doctorum, Venetiis, imp. Philippi Pincio, 1516, vol. 1, pags. 90, 43x28. Niviter impressum.
Baldus, Ubaldus Perusinus, Super toto codice, additionibus Io. Francisci de Musaptis, et cum apostillis Alexandri de Imola, A. Barbatiae et Celsi Burgundi, Lugduni, imp. Ioannis Moylin, 1526, vol. 3, 42x29. Cum repertorio ac lectura super toto codice.
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In secundam infortiati partem Praelectiones, Lugduni, imp. Iac. et Io. Senetoniorum, 1546, vol. 1, pags. 190, 42x29.
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Prima et secunda pars Commentariorum super Infortiato, Lugduni, imp. Sebastiani Griphis, vol. 2, pags. 197 y 188, 42x29.
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In primam et secundam Digesti veteris partem Commentaria, adnotationibus, Alex. Barb. Seisell, Pom, Nicelli et aliorum, Augustae Taurinorum, imp. N. Beuilaquae, 1577, vol. 2, pags. 198 y 160, 43x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In primam et secundam Digesti novi partem Commentaria, cum adnotationibus, Alex. Barb. Seisell, Pom, Nicelli et aliorum, Augustae Taurinorum, imp. N. Beuilaquae, 1577, vol. 2, pags. 180 y 254, 43x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Secunda pars commentariorum super Digesto Novo, Lugduni, imp. Sebastiani Griphis, 1527, 42x29 (con anotaciones)
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Secunda pars commentariorum super Digesto Veteri, Lugduni, imp. Sebastiani Griphis, 1527, vol. 1, pags. 158, 42x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In primam et secundam Codicis partem commentaria, Augustae Taurinorum, imp. N. Beuilaquae, 1577, vol. 1, pags. 187 y 125, 43x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In tres Cidicis libros Commentaria, Augustae Taurinorum, imp. N. Beuilaquae, 1577, vol. 1, pags. 58, 43x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Prima et secunda pars Commentariorum super Codice, Lugduni, imp. Sebastiani Griphis, 1527, vol. 2, pags. 195 y 128, 42x29. Additiones hujus operis: Alexandri Imolensis, Andreae Barbatiae, Andreae de Pomate et Christophori de Nicellis.
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In tres Cidicis libros praelectiones, Lugduni, imp. Iac. et Io. Senetoniorum, 1546, vol. 1, pags. 69, 42x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In primam et secundam partem Codicis Praelectiones, Lugduni, imp. Iac. et Io. Senetoniorum, 1546, vol. 2, pags. 195 y 126, 42x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Consilia, Tractatus et Questiones, Lugduni, imp. Sebastiani Griphis, 1527, vol. 1, pags. 153, 42x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Repertorium singularium materiarum super Lectura Bartoli, Lugduni, imp. Sebastiani Griphis, 1527, vol. 1, 42x29
Bartolus de Saxoferrato, In authentic. opus Praelectiones, Lugduni, imp. Iac. et Io. Senetoniorum, 1546, vol. 1, pags. 62, 42x29.
Bonavoglia, Ioannes Franciscus et J. A. Riccius, Additiones novae et Jasonis Mayni super secundam Codicis partem, Venetiis, imp. Iac. Iuntae, 1622, vol. 1, pags. 26 y 6, 41x28
Castro, Paulus de, In primam et secundam partem Digesti veteris, Francisci Curtii aliorumque anotationibus, Lugduni, 1544, vol. 2, pags. 172 y 129, 41x27.
Castro, Paulus de, Advenionicae in Digestum vetus et novum praelectiones, Lugduni, 1544, vol. 1, pags. 94, 41x27.
Castro, Paulus de, In primam et secundam partem Digesti novi, Francisci Curtii aliorumque anotationibus, Lugduni, 1544, vol. 1, pags. 83 y 98, 41x27.
Castro, Paulus de, Repertorium Sententiarum ac rerum quas in Praclectionibus in Jus Universum Tradidit, Lugduni, 40x27.
Cornazzano, Barnabbas, Decisionum novissimarum Rotae Lucensis centuriae duae, Francofurti, 1600, vol. 1, pags. 256 y 297, 34x21
Costa, Emmanuel, Omnia quae estant in jus canonicum et civile Opera, Lugduni, imp. P. H. Phillip. Thinghi, 1584, vol. 1, pags. 646, 35x22.
Cuiacius, I. C. Iacobus, Tota Opera in corpus luris, Tomus II, III et IV, Lugduni, imp. Io. Phillehotti, 1614, vol. 3, 34x22.
Durandus, Guilielmus, Tertia et quarta para Specu, cum additionibus Ioannis Andreae et Baldi; Novissime auten cum additionibus Henrici Ferrandat Nivernensis, Lugduni, imp. Iacobi Racon, 1520, vol. 1, pags. 184, 39x27. Ed. ultima, novissime in lucem edita.
Gravetta, Aymon, In primam et secundam ff. Novi, Augustae Taurinorum, imp. Dominici Tarini, 1606, vol. 1, pags. 435, 36x24
Jason de Mayno Mediolanensis, In secundam Codicis partem commentaria, Venetiis, imp. Iac. Iuntae, 1622, vol. 1, pags. 188, 41x28.
Jason de Mayno Mediolanensis, Prima et secunda super digesto veteri, Lugduni, imp. Petri Fradin, 1553, vol. 2, pags. 196 y 202, 42x29. Cum additionibus Francisci Ioannis Purpurati.
Jason de Mayno Mediolanensis, In primam Infortiati partem commentaria, Venetiis, imp. Iac. Iuntae, 1622, vol. 1, pags. 190 y 15, 41x28.
Jason de Mayno Mediolanensis, Prima et secunda pars super Infortiato, Lugduni, imp. Blasii Guido, 1553, vol. 2, pags. 208 y 187, 42x28. Cum Additionibus Ioannis Francisci Purpurati.
López de Palacios Rubios, Joannes, Gloscmata legum Tauri, quas vulgo de Toro appellant, Salmanticae, imp. Io. de Iunta, 1542, vol. 1, pags. 140, 30x21.
Maynard, J. C., D. Gerardus, Novae Tholosanae quaestiones juris scripti per arresta Parlamenti Tholosani, quas e gallico in latinum transtulit Hieronymus Bruckner, Francofurti, imp. Nicolai Hoffman, 1610, vol.1, pags. 580 y 96, 35x23. Ed. Petri Kopssii.
Menochius, J.C., Jacobus, Consiliorum sive responsorum libri, Francofurti, imp. Wecheli & Gymnici, 1614, vol. 7, 37x24.
Naebius Lipsiensis, Sebastianus, Systema selectorum jus Justinianeum et Feudale concernentium, Francofurti, imp. Jo. Saurii, 1608, vol. 5, 34x21.
Petra, Petrus Antonius de, Tractatus de fideicommissis, et maxime ex prohibita alienatione resultantibus, Francofurti, imp. Mus. Palthenianarum, 1603, vol. 1, pags. 636, 34x21. Ed. prior.
Pinelus Lusitanus, Arius, Ad constitutiones C de bonis maternis, Salmanticae, imp. Mathias Gastius, 1573, vol. 1, pags. 351 y 183, 27x20.
Purpuratus de Pinerolio J.C., Joannes Franciscus, In primam et secundam Codicis partem commentaria, Augustae Taurin, imp. Jo. Beuilaquae, 1588, vol. 1, pags. 108 y 116, 42x29.
Rebuffo de Montepessulano, Petrus, Commentaria in Constitutiones regias gallicas, Lugduni, imp. Sennetoniorium, 1555, vol. 1, pags. 475, 23x21.
Ripa, Joannes Franciscus A., In primam et secundam Infortiati partem commentaria, Venetiis, 1602, vol 1, pags. 143 y 164, 41x28.
Rosate Bergonensis J.C., Albericus, Dictionarium juris tam civilis quam canonici, Venetiis, 1601, vol. 1, pags. 368, 41x27.
Socinus Senensis, Bartholomeus, In Digesti veteris ac Infortiati rubricas, leges adque omnes Gymnasiis usitatiores, Venetiis, imp. Juntae, 1605, vol. 1, pags. 286, 41x27, Ed. postrema.
Socinus Senensis, Bartholomeus, Consiliorum Bononiensium ac Patavinorum volumen tertium, per D. Petrum Andream Gammarum correctum, Lugduni, imp. Joan. Moulin (a. Lambrau), 1537, vol. 1, pags. 123, 40x27.
Socinus Senensis, Bartholomeus, Ad Digestum novum et aliquot Codicis titulos, Lugduni, imp. Glaudii Servanii, 1564, vol. 1, pags. 193, 41x27. Editi per Vincentium Godemianum Pistorien. J.D.
Tessaurus Fossanensis, Antoninus, Decisiones S. Senatus Pedemontani, Augustae Taurin, imp. Io. D. Tarini, 1590, vol. 1, pags. 236, 35x24.
Tessaurus Gaspar, Antonius, Additiones ad novas decisiones S. Senatus Pedemontani, Taurini, imp. FF. de Cavalleriis, 1604, vol. 1, pags. 280, 20x15.
Tiraquellus, Andreas, De jure constituti possessorii Tractatus, Parisis, imp. Jacobi Keruer, 1550, vol. 1, pags. 180, 18x12.
Velázquez de Avendaño, Ludovicus, Legum Taurinarum a Ferdinando et Joanna Hispaniarum Regibus, utilissima glosa, Toleti, imp. Joa. et Petri Rodríguez, 1588, vol. 1, pags. 204, 28x20.
Villalobos, Joannes Baptista A., Antinomia juris regni Hispaniarum, ac civilis, in qua practica forentium causarum versatur, Salmanticae, imp. Alexandri a Canova, 1569, vol. 1, pags. 190, 28x20
Guterius, Ioannes, Tractatus de juramento confirmatorio et aliis in jure variis resolutionibus, Madriti, imp. Ludov. Sánchez, 1597, vol. 2, pags. 328 y 328, 30x21.
Guterius Placentinus, Ioannes, Tractatus de juramento confirmatorio et aliis in jure variis resolutionibus, Salmanticae, imp. Jo. a Canova, 1574, vol. 1, pags. 250, 29x21.
Romanus, Antonius Gabriel, Conclusionum seu regularum ad materiam probatoriam pertinentes libri septem, Romae, 1570, vol. 1, pags. 937 a 1660, 34x22.
Franchis de Perusio, Philipus de, Lectura perutilis et valde quotidiana super titulo de appellationibus et nullitatibus sententiarum, Tridini, 1518, vol. 1, pags. 100, 42x29. Impensis Ioannis de Ferraris (a) de Ioalitis ac Girardi de Zeis.
Ancharano, Petrus de, Super sexto decretalium, Lugduni, imp. Io. de Cambray, 1531, vol. 1, pags. 217, 43x29.
Costa, Emmanuel, Omnia quae extant in jus canonicum et civile Opera, Lugduni, imp. P. H. Phillip. Tinghi, 1584, vol. 1, pags. 646, 35x22.
Ruinus Regiensis, Carolus, Consiliorum seu responsorum, Lugduni, imp. Hugonis et Haered, 1546, vol. 5, 42x28.
Sarmiento, Franciscus, Selectarum interpretationum libri tres et de Reditibus Ecclesiae, Burgis, imp. Philip. Iuntae, 1573, vol. 1, pags. 130 y 71, 30x21.
Tuschi, Dominicus S. Onuphri Cardinalis, Practicarum conclusionum juris in omni foro frecuentiorum, Francofurti, imp. Erasmi Kempseri, 1621, vols. 4, 36x24.
Aliaco, Petrus de, Quaestiones subtilissimae in Spheram, Venetiis, imp. Rubei et Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 71 a 87, 31x22. (con anotaciones)
Capuanus, Franciscus, Theoricae novae planetarum Georgii Purbachii astronomi celebratissimi, Venetiis, imp. Rubei et Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 64, 31x22 (con anotaciones)
Capuanus, Franciscus, Expositio Spherae, Venetiis, imp. Rubei et Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 54, 31x22. (con anotaciones)
Monterregio, Joannes de, Disputationes contra Cremonensia deliramenta in planetarum theoricas, Venetiis, imp. Rubei et Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 90 a 94, 31x22. (con anotaciones)
Sacrobusto, Joannes de, Testux Spherae, cum brevi et utili expositione eximii Artium et Medicinae doctoris Francisci Capuani Atronomiam in Patavino Gymnasio legentis, Venetiis, imp. Rubei et Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 2, 31x22. (con anotaciones)
Stapulensis, Jacobus, Commentarii in Spheram Joannis de Sacrobusto, Venetiis, imp. Rubei et Bernardini, 1508, vol. 1, pags. 70, 31x22. (con anotaciones)
Didacus, Merinus, De morbis internis, Burgos, imp. Ph. Juntae, 1575, vol. 1, pags. 143, 29x20 (con anotaciones)
Forestus Almarianus, Petrus, Observationum et curationum medicinalium. De pectoris pulmonisque vitiis et morbis, vol. 1, pags. 176, 32x20. Libri 16/28.
Gentilis, Fulginas, Super canones Avicenae, Venetiis, imp. Scoti, 1520, vol. 4, 34x22. Aere et Sollerti cura Dom. Octaviani Scoti civis Modoetiensis.
Chassenaeo, Bartholomeus A., Consuetudines Ducatus Burgundiae, Fereque totius Galliae, Parisiis, imp. Io. Roiny, 1548, vol. 1, pags. 389, 33x21.
Otálora Arce, Ioannes AB, Summa nobilitatis Hispaicae et inmunitatis regiorum tributorum, Madriti, imp. Ludovici Sánchez, 1613, vol. 2, pags. 363 y 363, 29x21.
Number of books by theme
Number of Books Theme Civil
Law Medicine Sacred
Theology Astronomy Patrology History Procedural
Law Apologetics Philosophy Astronomy Probative
Law Genealogies Mysticism Politics Preaching. Moral Theology Moral
Number of Books
Preaching. Moral Theology
Arévalo, José María. “Rectificación y observaciones a la biografía de Fray Cristóbal de Torres”, Boletín de Historia y Antigüedades, Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Historia, Vol. LII, No. 604-605, febrero y marzo 1965.
Ariza, Alberto, O.P. Fray Cristóbal de Torres O.P., Arzobispo de Santafé de Bogotá, Bogotá: Ed. Kelly, 1974.
Carpintero, Francisco. “Mos italicus, mos gallicus y el humanismo racionalista. Una contribución a la historia de la metodología jurídica”, en Ius Comune, Frankfurt, consultado en: http://www.franciscocarpintero.com/pdf/ArtiRev/%E2%80%9CMos%20italicus%E2%80%9D,%20%E2%80%9Cmos%20gallicus%E2%80%9D%20y%20el%20Humanismo%20racionalista,%20en%20%E2%80%9CJus%20Commune%E2%80%9D.pdf.
Chartier, Roger. El mundo como representación. Estudios sobre historia cultural, Barcelona: Gedisa, 2005.
Coplestone, Frederick. Historia de la filosofía. De Ockham a Suárez, Barcelona: Ariel, Vol. III, 1985.
Cristina, María Teresa. “La literatura en la conquista y la colonia” Nueva historia de Colombia, Bogotá: Planeta, 1989.
Del Río, Ángel. “Estudio Preliminar” Moralistas castellanos, Buenos Aires: Clásicos Jackson, vol. VIII, W.M. Jackson Eds, 1950.
Fortich Navarro, Mónica Patricia. Literatura, historia y política: Una lectura de Don Quijote en la bibliografía colonial neogranadina, Bogotá: Universidad San Buenaventura, 2008.
Giraldo Jaramillo, Gabriel. “El libro y la imprenta en la cultura colombiana”, Santa, Eduardo, El libro en Colombia, Bogotá: Colcultura, Imprenta Nacional, 1973.
García, María del Rosario. Fray Cristóbal de Torres, un lector del siglo XVII, Tesis de doctorado, Bogotá: Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, 2013.
Hernández de Alba, Guillermo. Documentos para la historia de la educación en Colombia, Bogotá: Patronato de Artes y Ciencias, 1969.
Hernández de Alba, Guillermo y Martínez Briceño, Rafael. Una biblioteca de Santa Fe de Bogotá en el siglo XVII, Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 1960.
Jaramillo, Pilar. La producción intelectual de los Rosaristas 1700-1799, Centro Bogotá: Editorial Universidad del Rosario, 2004.
Leonard, Irving. Los libros del conquistador, México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1996.
Muñoz Rojas, Catalina. “Una aproximación a la historia de la lectura en la Nueva Granada: el caso de Juan Fernández de Sotomayor”, Historia Crítica, No. 22, Bogotá: Universidad de Los Andes, 2001.
Rivas Sacconi, J.M. El latín en Colombia. Bosquejo histórico del humanismo colombiano, Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Cultura, 1977.
Ruiz Martínez, Eduardo. La librería de Nariño y los Derechos del Hombre, Bogotá: Planeta, 1988.
Santa, Eduardo (comp.). El libro en Colombia, Colcultura, Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional, 1973.
Sidney Woolf, Cecil N. Bartolus of Sassoferrato, His Position in the History of Medieval Political Thought, Cambridge University Press,1913.
Silva, Renán. Saber, cultura y sociedad en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglos XVII y XVIII, Medellín: La Carreta, 2004.
Silva, Renán. Los ilustrados de Nueva Granada 1760-1808. Genealogía de una comunidad e interpretación, Medellín: Fondo Editorial Universidad EAFIT, 2002.
Soto Arango, D., Puig-Samper, M.A., Bender, M. y González-Ripoll, M.D., (Eds).Recepción y difusión de textos Ilustrados, Madrid: Rudecolombia UPTC, Colciencias, Universidad de León, Martin Luther Universitat, Ed. Doce Calles, 2003.
Torre Revello, José. El libro, la imprenta y el periodismo en América, Buenos Aires: Publicaciones del Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, No. LXXIV, 1940.
Torres, Fray Cristóbal de, Constituciones del Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, Madrid, imp. Juan Nogués, 1666, pags. 14, cuarto.
Uribe Ángel, Jorge Tomás. Historia de la enseñanza en el Colegio Mayor del Rosario, 1653-1767, Bogotá: Centro Editorial Universidad del Rosario, 2003.
To cite this article:
María del Rosario García, “Libraries in 17th century New Granada: The library of Brother Cristóbal de Torres at Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario”, Historia y Memoria, No. 11 (July-December, 2015): 17-55.
 Doctorate in Education, professor of the Faculties of Political Science and Government, and of International Relations of the Universidad del Rosario and researcher for the Center for Political and International Studies —CEPI, by its acronym in Spanish—, Line of investigation: ‘Political history, culture and philosophy’. Email address: email@example.com
* This article is the product of the research project “Fray Cristóbal de Torres, un lector del siglo XVII”, realised by the research group ‘Educación y cultura política’ (Education and political culture) within the doctorate in Education of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional.
 Guillermo Hernández de Alba and Rafael Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca de Santa Fe de Bogotá en el siglo XVII, (Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 1960) and Eduardo Ruiz Martínez, La librería de Nariño y los Derechos del Hombre, (Bogotá: Planeta, 1988)
 Gabriel Giraldo Jaramillo, “El libro y la imprenta en la cultura colombiana”, in El libro en Colombia, (Bogotá: Colcultura, Imprenta Nacional, 1973).
 María Teresa Cristina, “La literatura en la conquista y la colonia” in Nueva historia de Colombia, (Bogotá: Planeta, 1989) and Mónica Patricia Fortich Navarro, Literatura, historia y política: Una lecturade Don Quijote en la bibliografía colonial neogranadina, (Bogotá: Universidad San Buenaventura, 2008)
 Diana Soto Arango, et Al., (Eds), Recepción y difusión de textos Ilustrados, (Madrid: Rudecolombia UPTC, Colciencias, Universidad de León, Martin Luther Universitat, Ed. Doce Calles, 2003).
 Eduardo Santa, (comp.), El libro en Colombia, (Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional, 1973).
 Pilar Jaramillo, La producción intelectual de los Rosaristas 1700-1799, (Bogotá: Editorial Universidad del Rosario, 2004).
 Roger Chartier, El mundo como representación. Estudios sobre historia cultural, (Barcelona: Gedisa, 2005), 13-44.
 Irving Leonard, Los libros del conquistador, (México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1996).
 Leonard, Los libros… 10.
 This opinion is part of the 'black legend' of Spain, formed by an important part of the historians of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, who exalted independence and denigrated everything related to the colonial past.
María Teresa Cristina, “La literatura en la conquista y la colonia”, 223.
 Hernández de Alba and Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca…
Renán Silva, Los ilustrados de Nueva Granada 1760-1808. Genealogía de una comunidad e interpretación, (Medellín: Fondo Editorial Universidad EAFIT, 2002).
 Renán Silva, Los ilustrados… 379.
 Catalina Muñoz Rojas, “Una aproximación a la historia de la lectura en la Nueva Granada: el caso de Juan Fernández de Sotomayor”, História Crítica, No. 22, (2001).
 The old library of the Universidad del Rosario contains approximately 8000 volumes, of which about 175 books belonged to Brother Cristóbal de Torres.
 The catalog was elaborated by the author for the doctoral research ‘Fray Cristóbal de Torres: Un lector del siglo XVII’, carried out within the research group Educación y cultura política (Education and political culture) of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional.
 María del Rosario García, Fray Cristóbal de Torres, un lector del siglo XVII, Doctoral thesis, (Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, 2013), 175-195. In this doctoral thesis, an analysis is made of the readings of Brother Cristóbal de Torres through the use of these readings in his writings, such as: Torres, Fray Cristóbal de, Lengua eucharistica, obra posthuma, Madrid, imp. Pablo de Val, 1665, vol. 1, pages. 612, 30x21, (Ed. Brought to light by Brother Cristóbal de Araque); Torres, Fray Cristóbal de, Cuna Mystica, pequeñez de las glorias del Santísimo Rosario, Madrid, manuscript, vol. 1, pages. 563, 22x16; Torres, Fray Cristóbal de, Sermones de Santa Teresa, Madrid, 1627.
 Renán Silva, Saber, cultura y sociedad en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglos XVII y XVIII, (Medellín: La Carreta, 2004), 50-51.
 Data compiled by the author in the Historic Archive of the Universidad del Rosario for the elaboration of her doctoral thesis.
Frederick Coplestone, Historia de la filosofía. De Ockham a Suárez, (Barcelona Ariel, 1985) Vol. III, 362-363.
 Hernández de Alba y Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca… 1-40
 Hernández de Alba y Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca… 33-34
 Hernández de Alba y Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca… 6-7
 Hernández de Alba y Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca… 31
 Hernández de Alba and Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca… 6-37.
 Hernández de Alba and Martínez Briceño, Una biblioteca… 37.
 Renán Silva, Los ilustrados… 221-222
 Renán Silva, Los ilustrados… 225
 Renán Silva, Los ilustrados, 225.
 Brother Cristóbal de Torres, Constituciones del Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, (Madrid, imp. Juan Nogués, 1666), Título V, Constitución V
 Guillermo Hernández de Alba, Documentos para la historia de la educación en Colombia, (Bogotá: Patronato de Artes y Ciencias, 1969), T.II, 30.
 Hernández de Alba, Documentos… 24
 The collection of old books of the Historical Archive of the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario contains one of the most complete collections by this author. Several of these books (17 volumes) belonged to Brother Cristóbal and were donated by him to the library of the Colegio. See Brother Cristóbal de Torres's Library Catalog in Appendix 1.
 The Corpus Iuris Civilis is the name by which the compilation of laws made by the emperor Justinian in the 6th century is known. The Corpus Iuris Civilis is divided into four parts: the Institutes, the Digest, the Codex and the Novels or New Laws. The comments, clarifications and explanations to the Code of Justinian are called the Glosses.
 Cecil N. Sidney Woolf, Bartolus of Sassoferrato, His Position in the History of Medieval Political Thought, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1913), 4-5
 For the references of the books of all the authors cited below in this section see annexed catalog.
Francisco Carpintero, “Mos italicus, mos gallicus y el humanismo racionalista. Una contribución a la historia de la metodología jurídica”, in Ius Comune, (Frankfurt: 1977), consulted in:
Francisco Carpintero, “Mos italicus…120.
 Jorge Tomás Uribe Ángel, Historia de la enseñanza en el Colegio Mayor del Rosario, 1653-1767, (Bogotá: Centro Editorial Universidad del Rosario, 2003), 129.
 Brother Cristóbal de Torres, Constituciones, Título V, Constitución, III.
 For many years the biographers of Brother Cristóbal interpreted the phrase “hearing in voice the direction of the most learned father, master Brother Domingo de Soto” as that Brother Cristóbal had been the direct disciple of the master of Salamanca and not as what it really meant: Brother Cristóbal heard the direction of Domingo de Soto, but not Domingo de Soto in person as was clarified very well by José María Arévalo, “Rectificación y observaciones a la biografía de Fray Cristóbal de Torres”, Boletín de Historia y Antigüedades, LII: No. 604-605, (February and March, 1965), 135-145.
 Decree of 25th November 1636, cited by Alberto Ariza, O.P., Fray Cristóbal de Torres O.P., Arzobispo de Santafé de Bogotá, (Bogotá: Ed. Kelly, 1974), 44.
Leonard, Los libros… 271-358.
Royal decree from Felipe IV to Brother Cristóbal de Torres, OP, Archbishop of Santafé, New Kingdom of Granada, in which he grants him the licence to found a college with the style and privileges of the Colegio Mayor of the Archbishop of Salamanca, Madrid, December 31 1651.
Frederick Coplestone, Historia de la filosofía. De Ockham a Suárez, (Barcelona Ariel, 1985) Vol. III, 323-325.
 Ángel Del Río, “Estudio Preliminar” in Moralistas castellanos, (Buenos Aires: Clásicos Jackson, vol. VIII, W.M. Jackson Eds, 1950), xiv
 Ángel Del Río, “Estudio…”… xxxii
 Roberto Andrade de Martins, Editions of Tractatus de Sphaera, Johannes de Sacrobosco, (Sao Paulo: Group of History and Theory of Science University of São Paulo, n.d..) in http://www.ghtc.usp.br/server/Sacrobosco/Sacrobosco-ed.htm
 S. Leo Magnus Romanus Pontifex, Opera omnia quaereperiri potuerunt, Parisiis, imp. Claudii Morel, 1614, vol. 1, page. 539, 35x23, ed. Ioannis Vlimmerii.
S. Ambrosius, Episcopus Mediolanensis, Opera Omnia, Parisiis, imp. Gervasii Chevallonii, 1539, vol. 1, page 558, 37x25.
Mariana, S.J., P. Juan de, Historia general de España, Madrid, imp. Carlos Sánchez, 1650, vol. 2, pages 618 and 684, 20x22, Ed. Gabriel de León.
 For example Toledo, 1601; Madrid, 1608; Madrid, 1617; Madrid, 1623; Madrid, 1650.
Pineda, F. Ivan, Tercera parte de la Monarchia Ecclesiástica o Historia Universal del Mundo, Barcelona, imp. Hyeronimo Margarit, 1620, vol. 1.
Thomas Aquinas (Pseudo), Sancti Thome de Aquino super libros Boetii de Consolatione philosophie Commentum, cum espositione, Nüremberg, imp. Anton Koberger, 1473 (INCUNABLE) vol.1, page 332, 28x20
Erasmus, Roterodamus, Opus de conscribendis epistolis, Parabolarum sive similium liber ab autore recognitus, Basileae, imp. Jo. Frob. (Johann Froben), 1522, vol.1, pages 409 and 200, 20x15. Ed. ab autore recognita.
Index librorum prohibitorum et expurgatorum Illm. ac Rmi. D.D. Bernardi de Sandoual et Roxas S.R.E. Presb. Cardin...Archepisc. Toletani... auctoritate et iussu editus..., Madriti, apud Ludouicum Sanchez, 1612, 210-211
 Irving Leonard. Los libros ... 173-174
 Leonard refers to the document I transcribed in the Appendix of Los libros del conquistador, consisting of a note from Pablo García and Pedro de Trujillo from 1579
 This catalog was made for the doctoral thesis titled ‘Fray Cristóbal de Torres: Un lector del siglo XVII’ and within the framework of the research group of Education and political culture of the Interinstitutional Doctorate of Education, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. The classification of the subjects is the same as the Historical Archive of the Universidad del Rosario, where all the referenced books are found. The catalog, as explained in the text of the article, is made up of the books that Brother Cristóbal de Torres donated to the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario.