Análisis de soldabilidad de aceros inoxidables con aceros de medio y bajo carbono por SMAW

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José Luddey Marulanda Arevalo
Victor Manuel Burbano
Jaime Andrés Peláez


Se presenta un estudio de la soldabilidad de aceros inoxidables austeníticos AISI 304 y AISI 316 con aceros de bajo y medio carbono AISI 1020 – AISI 1045, empleando como materiales de aporte los electrodos EutecTrode® 52 NG, 54 NG y 57 NG, mediante el proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido (SMAW). Para analizar la soldabilidad de estos electrodos cuando se realiza la unión de aceros inoxidables con aceros al carbono, se practicaron pruebas metalográficas y ensayos mecánicos de dureza, doblez y tracción, con el fin de observar el comportamiento tanto de la zona afectada térmicamente como del cordón de soldadura, a partir del cambio en las propiedades mecánicas y metalúrgicas en las diferentes regiones de las uniones soldadas. Durante el proceso de soldadura se siguió una especificación del procedimiento de soldadura (WPS), para que los resultados fueran repetibles, minimizando los problemas de agrietamiento en caliente, agrietamiento en frío, formación de fase sigma y precipitación de carburos.

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