Manufacture of titanium dioxide scaffolds for medical applications

Main Article Content


Giovanni Cuervo-Osorio
Ana María Jiménez-Valencia
Cristian Mosquera-Agualimpia
Diana Marcela Escobar-Sierra


The skeletal system is vulnerable to injuries and bone loss over the years, making the use of autologous or allogeneic implants necessary. However, these implants have complications, such as the limited amount of bone to be extracted and the cell death at the extraction site; hence, biomaterials have been developed as platforms for cell growth (scaffolds). Biomaterials and bones have similar properties that facilitate the integration between the material and the bone tissue, helping the tissue to regenerate. Traditional ceramic implants are hydroxyapatite, but given their low mechanical properties, they have been replaced with better inert ceramics. Therefore, this study aims at manufacturing titanium dioxide scaffolds through various techniques, using collagen, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium chloride, and corn flour as binders to influence pore size. Scaffolds were characterized by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and evaluated by compression and degradability tests in a Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The prepared scaffolds had mechanical behaviors with ranges within the bone parameters; among them, the scaffold obtained by infiltration with 10% PVA presented values of compression strength (6.75 MPa), elastic modulus (0.23 GPa), and porosities (54-67%) closer to the values of the trabecular bone.


Article Details


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

All articles included in the Revista Facultad de Ingeniería are published under the Creative Commons (BY) license.

Authors must complete, sign, and submit the Review and Publication Authorization Form of the manuscript provided by the Journal; this form should contain all the originality and copyright information of the manuscript.

The authors who publish in this Journal accept the following conditions:

a. The authors retain the copyright and transfer the right of the first publication to the journal, with the work registered under the Creative Commons attribution license, which allows third parties to use what is published as long as they mention the authorship of the work and the first publication in this Journal.

b. Authors can make other independent and additional contractual agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (eg, include it in an institutional repository or publish it in a book) provided they clearly indicate that the work It was first published in this Journal.

c. Authors are allowed and recommended to publish their work on the Internet (for example on institutional or personal pages) before and during the process.
review and publication, as it can lead to productive exchanges and a greater and faster dissemination of published work.

d. The Journal authorizes the total or partial reproduction of the content of the publication, as long as the source is cited, that is, the name of the Journal, name of the author (s), year, volume, publication number and pages of the article.

e. The ideas and statements issued by the authors are their responsibility and in no case bind the Journal.


[1] A. L. Pérez, V. V. Ortega, L. Meseguer, M. A. Baños, P. Sepúlveda, and M. C. Sanz, “Implante óseo de la espuma de hidroxiapatita. Estudio experimental en conejos,” Rev Esp. Patol., vol. 38 (2), pp. 14-20, Jan. 2005.

[2] J. Park, and R. Lakes, Biomaterials: An Introduction. 3ra ed. USA: Springer, 2007.

[3] J. I. González, D. M. Escobar, and C. P. Ossa, “Influence of the Type of Manufacturing Technique on the Porosity and Interconnectivity of Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds,” Int. J. of Mat. Eng. Innovation, vol. 7 (2), pp. 104-114, Dec. 2016. DOI:

[4] J. Liu, and X. Miao, “Porous alumina ceramics prepared by slurry infiltration of expanded polystyrene beads,” J. of Mat Sc., vol. 40 (23), pp. 6145-6150, Dec. 2005. DOI:

[5] T. Yang, J. M. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, and H. C. Park, “Hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed using a TBA-based freeze-gel casting/polymer sponge technique,” J. Mater Sci. Mater. Med., vol. 21 (5), pp. 1495-1502, May. 2010. DOI:

[6] H. R. Ramay, and M. Zhang, “Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds by combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods,” Biomaterials, vol. 24 (19), pp. 3293-3302, Aug. 2003. DOI:

[7] E. Saiz, L. Gremillard, G. Menendez, K. Miranda, P. Gryn, and A. P. Tomsia, “Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds,” Mat. Sc. and Eng: C, vol. 27 (3), pp. 546-555, Apr. 2007. DOI:

[8] S. Deville, E. Saiz, and A. P. Tomsia, “Freeze casting of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 27 (32), pp. 5480-5489. Nov. 2006. DOI:

[9] J. I. González, D. M Escobar, and C. P. Ossa, “Métodos de fabricación de cuerpos porosos de hidroxiapatita, revisión del estado del arte,” Rev. ION, vol. 27 (2), pp. 55-70. Dec. 2014.

[10] J. I. González, D. M. Escobar, and C. P Ossa, “Porous bodies of hydroxyapatite produced by a combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods,” J. of Adv Res, vol. 7 (2), pp. 297-304, Mar. 2016. DOI:


Download data is not yet available.