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Classical modeling and control methods applied to differential locomotion mobile robots generate mathematical equations that approximate the dynamics of the system and work relatively well when the system is linear in a specific range. However, they may have low accuracy when there are many variations of the dynamics over time or disturbances occur. To solve this problem, we used a recursive least squares (RLS) method that uses a discrete-time structure first-order autoregressive model with exogenous variable (ARX). We design and modify PID adaptive self-adjusting controllers in phase margin and pole allocation. The main contribution of this methodology is that it allows the permanent and online update of the robot model and the parameters of the adaptive self-adjusting PID controllers. In addition, a Lyapunov stability analysis technique was implemented for path and trajectory tracking control, this makes the errors generated in the positioning and orientation of the robot when performing a given task tend asymptotically to zero. The performance of the PID adaptive self-adjusting controllers is measured through the implementation of the criteria of the integral of the error, which allows to determine the controller of best performance, being in this case, the PID adaptive self-adjusting type in pole assignment, allowing the mobile robot greater precision in tracking the trajectories and paths assigned, as well as less mechanical and energy wear, due to its smooth and precise movements.
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