Night air conditioning of buildings by external air ventilation

Main Article Content

Autores

Debrayan Bravo-Hidalgo, M.Sc. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0428-2263

Abstract

Buildings contain the environment in which almost all human activities take place, and therefore, nowadays, they represent a great sink of energy. Establishing thermal comfort conditions within these buildings is responsible for a large portion of their energy demand. This paper aims at providing a theoretical framework of the performance and the trends in research and implementation of night air conditioning by outside air ventilation. The bibliographic search was conducted in the academic directory Scopus, and the information extracted was processed in the VOSviewer software, through which text mining, map of terms and networks of investigative action were carried out. The literature showed that direct ventilation has a more significant cooling potential in regions characterized by a high difference between day and night air temperatures. The effectiveness of night cooling and the reliable prediction of thermal behavior are strongly related to the model adopted for the convection algorithm. A reliable prediction of heat transfer by convection requires an approach based on computational simulations of fluid dynamics, which are much more demanding in terms of computational power, compared to simulations of the variation of energy flows as a function of time. Most studies showed that the position of the thermal mass is not significant, while the amount of ventilation air is of great importance. In particular, the energy demand for cooling a building decreases sharply if the air flow rates increase.

Keywords:

Article Details

Licence

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The journal authorizes the total or partial reproduction of the published article, as long as the source, including the name of the Journal, author(s), year, volume, issue, and pages are cited.

The ideas and assertions expressed by the authors are their solely responsibility and do not represent the views and opinions of the Journal or its editors.

All articles included in the Revista Facultad de Ingeniería are published under the Creative Commons (BY) license.

Authors must complete, sign, and submit the Review and Publication Authorization Form of the manuscript provided by the Journal; this form should contain all the originality and copyright information of the manuscript.

The authors  keep copyright, however, once the work in the Journal has been published, the authors must always allude to it.

References

[1] M. Boulic, et al., "Increasing the ventilation rate and temperature in New Zealand classrooms using a solar roof collector," in Central Europe Towards Sustainable Building 2016: Innovations for Sustainable Future, 2016, pp. 1559-1566: Grada Publishing.

[2] D. Bravo Hidalgo, "Climatización solar de edificaciones," Centro Azúcar, vol. 42, pp. 72-82, 2015.

[3] A. I. AbdelAzim, A. M. Ibrahim, and E. M. Aboul-Zahab, "Development of an energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings using Analytic Hierarchy Process – The case of Egypt," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Review vol. 71, pp. 414-425, May. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.071.

[4] G. Y. Yun, and K. Song, "Development of an automatic calibration method of a VRF energy model for the design of energy efficient buildings," Energy and Buildings, Article vol. 135, pp. 156-165, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.11.060.

[5] H. Yi, R. S. Srinivasan, W. W. Braham, and D. R. Tilley, "An ecological understanding of net-zero energy building: Evaluation of sustainability based on emergy theory," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 143, pp. 654-671, Feb. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.059.

[6] M. Kostka, and M. Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, "Change-over natural and mechanical ventilation system energy consumption in single-family buildings," in International Conference on Advances in Energy Systems and Environmental Engineering, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20172200086.

[7] M. J. Alonso, H. M. Mathisen, and R. Collins, "Ventilative cooling as a solution for highly insulated buildings in cold climate," in 6th International Building Physics Conference, 2015, vol. 78, pp. 3013-3018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.707.

[8] D. E. Kalz, and J. Pfafferott, "Comparative evaluation of natural ventilated and mechanical cooled non-residential buildings in Germany: Thermal comfort in summer," in Conference on Adapting to Change: New Thinking on Comfort, Windsor, 2010.

[9] P. Blecich, M. Franković, and Ž. Kristl, "Energy retrofit of the Krsan Castle: From sustainable to responsible design - A case study," Energy and Buildings, vol. 122, pp. 23-33, Jun. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.04.011.

[10] A. I. Ibiyeye, F. Z. J. Mohd, and S. Zalina, "Natural ventilation provisions in terraced-house designs in hot-humid climates: Case of Putrajaya, Malaysia," Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, vol. 23(4), pp. 885-904, 2015.

[11] A. R. Rempel, and S. J. Remington, "Optimization of passive cooling control thresholds with GenOpt and EnergyPlus," in 2015 Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, SimAUD 2015, Part of the 2015 Spring Simulation Multi-Conference, SpringSim 2015, 2015, vol. 47, pp. 103-110.

[12] A. M. Omer, "Principle of low energy building design: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning," in Advances in Energy Research, vol. 20: Nova Science Publishers, 2014, pp. 57-103.

[13] M. Raheel, S. Ayaz, and M. T. Afzal, "Evaluation of h-index, its variants and extensions based on publication age & citation intensity in civil engineering," Scientometrics, vol. 114(3), pp. 1107-1127, Mar. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2633-2.

[14] J. A. Teixeira da Silva, and J. Dobránszki, "Multiple versions of the h-index: cautionary use for formal academic purposes," Scientometrics, Article in Press, pp. 1-7, 2018.

[15] V. Geros, M. Santamouris, S. Karatasou, A. Tsangrassoulis, and N. Papanikolaou, "On the cooling potential of night ventilation techniques in the urban environment," Energy and Buildings, vol. 37(3), pp. 243-257, Mar. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.06.024.

[16] M. Kolokotroni, I. Giannitsaris, and R. Watkins, "The effect of the London urban heat island on building summer cooling demand and night ventilation strategies," Solar Energy, vol. 80(4), pp. 383-392, Apr. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2005.03.010.

[17] H. Campaniço, P. M. M. Soares, P. Hollmuller, and R. M. Cardoso, "Climatic cooling potential and building cooling demand savings: High resolution spatiotemporal analysis of direct ventilation and evaporative cooling for the Iberian Peninsula," Renewable Energy, vol. 85(Supplement C), pp. 766-776, Jan. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.07.038.

[18] K. Goethals, H. Breesch, and A. Janssens, "Sensitivity analysis of predicted night cooling performance to internal convective heat transfer modelling," Energy and Buildings, vol. 43(9), pp. 2429-2441,Sep. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.05.033.

[19] K. Goethals, I. Couckuyt, T. Dhaene, and A. Janssens, "Sensitivity of night cooling performance to room/system design: Surrogate models based on CFD," Building and Environment, vol. 58(Supplement C), pp. 23-36, Dec. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.06.015.

[20] J. Le Dréau, P. Heiselberg, and R. L. Jensen, "Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer during night cooling with different ventilation systems and surface emissivities," Energy and Buildings, vol. 61, pp. 308-317, Jun. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.02.021.

[21] S. Leenknegt, R. Wagemakers, W. Bosschaerts, and D. Saelens, "Numerical sensitivity study of transient surface convection during night cooling," Energy and Buildings, vol. 53, pp. 85-95, Oct. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.06.020.

[22] P. Roach, F. Bruno, and M. Belusko, "Modelling the cooling energy of night ventilation and economiser strategies on façade selection of commercial buildings," Energy and Buildings, vol. 66, pp. 562-570, Nov. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.06.034.

[23] M. J. Alonso, H. M. Mathisen, and R. Collins, "Ventilative Cooling as a Solution for Highly Insulated Buildings in Cold Climate," Energy Procedia, vol. 78, pp. 3013-3018, Nov. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.707.

[24] B. Vidrih, C. Arkar, and S. Medved, "Generalized model-based predictive weather control for the control of free cooling by enhanced night-time ventilation," Applied Energy, vol. 168, pp. 482-492, Apr. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.01.109.

[25] E. Solgi, R. Fayaz, and B. M. Kari, "Cooling load reduction in office buildings of hot-arid climate, combining phase change materials and night purge ventilation," Renewable Energy, vol. 85, pp. 725-731, Jan. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.07.028.

[26] G. Chiesa and M. Grosso, "Geo-climatic applicability of natural ventilative cooling in the Mediterranean area," Energy and Buildings, vol. 107, pp. 376-391, Nov. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.08.043.

[27] R. Zhang, Y. Nie, K. P. Lam, and L. T. Biegler, "Dynamic optimization based integrated operation strategy design for passive cooling ventilation and active building air conditioning," Energy and Buildings, vol. 85, pp. 126-135, Dec. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.09.032.

[28] T. Yu, P. Heiselberg, B. Lei, M. Pomianowski, and C. Zhang, "A novel system solution for cooling and ventilation in office buildings: A review of applied technologies and a case study," Energy and Buildings, vol. 90, pp. 142-155, Mar. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.12.057.

[29] F. Ascione, L. Bellia, P. Mazzei, and F. Minichiello, "Solar gain and building envelope: the surface factor," Building Research & Information, vol. 38(2), pp. 187-205, Apr. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09613210903529118.

[30] F. Ascione, N. Bianco, R. F. De Masi, F. de Rossi, C. De Stasio, and G. P. Vanoli, "Energy audit of health care facilities: Dynamic simulation of energy performances and energy-oriented refurbishment of system and equipment for microclimatic control," American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Article vol. 9(4), pp. 814-834, Apr. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajeassp.2016.814.834.

[31] F. Ascione, O. Böttcher, R. Kaltenbrunner, and G. P. Vanoli, "Methodology of the cost-optimality for improving the indoor thermal environment during the warm season. Presentation of the method and application to a new multi-storey building in Berlin," Applied Energy, vol. 185, pp. 1529-1541, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.169.

[32] B. EN, "15251: 2007," Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics, 2007.

[33] A. Standard, "Standard 55-2010:“Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy”; ASHRAE," Atlanta USA, 2010.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.