Market Behavior of Continental Ornamental Fish in Colombia

Main Article Content


Julio Alejandro Franco Ortega
Erika Marcela Moncaleano Gómez
Rosa Elena Ajiaco Martinez


This paper addresses a review of scientific literature on the commercial importance of ornamental fish (PO) in Colombia. As the main results, it was found that this market is still a global exchange activity for exotic species that generates great profits and that it has been sustained with the trade of more than one billion species each year. Most of the POs are extracted from natural populations and end up in aquariums worldwide distributed, generating depletion of the resource associated with overfishing and extraction activities. Capture and handling practices and high mortality rates represent a significant welfare problem as well as a significant economic and environmental cost for the industry. South America is still the largest species supplier, mainly the biodiverse countries with an export tradition such as Colombia, where it is constituted as a commercial or subsistence resource of great importance for the fishing and indigenous populations. A list of 522 species of PO confirmed, grouped in 13 Orders, 49 Families and 213 genera whose most desirable species are Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Osteoglossum ferreirai, Paracheirodon axelrodi, Pterophyllum altum, Panaque nigrolineatus and Callichthyidae Callichthyidae. The problems associated with the few studies carried out in PO, the limited legislation that regulates and protects ecosystems and their biodiversity, added to bad practices and incentives for cultivation, abandonment of fishing communities that depend on this resource, have limited the growth of the sector. It is urgent to consider sustainable alternatives for reducing fishing pressure on the species, which include health, nutritional and efficient use of the water resource in order to allow the use and conservation of PO species, in this way this trade would grow much more trade and its contribution to the country's economy would also be grater.


Article Details


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Licencia de Creative Commons

All papers included in the Revista Ciencia y Agricultura are published under  Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International


Ajiaco-Martínez, R. E., Ramírez-Gil, H., Sánchez-Duarte, P., Lasso, C. A. & Trujillo, F. (2012). IV Diagnóstico de la pesca ornamental en Colombia. Serie Editorial Recursos Hidrobiológicos y Pesqueros Continentales de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt.
Araújo, J.G., Santos, M., Rebello, F &, Isaac, V. (2021). Cadeia comercial de peixes ornamentais do Rio Xingu, pará, Brasil. Boletim do Instituto De Pesca, 43(2), 297-307.

Barato, P., Penagos, G., Iregui, C. & Figueroa, J. (2012). Mapa epidemiológico de las enfermedades de los peces ornamentales en Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Bidisha, P. & Angsuman, Ch. (2014). Indigenous Ornamental Fish Faunal Diversity in Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal. India International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 3(6), 94-100.

Biswas, S.P., Santosh, S. & Das, J.N. (2015). Conservation and Management of Ornamental Fish Resources of North East India. Aquac Res Development, 6, 310.

Buschmann, A & Fortt, A. (2005). Efectos ambientales de la acuicultura intensiva y alternativas para un desarrollo sustentable. Revista Ambiente y Desarrollo, 20.

Cabello F. (2006). Heavy Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Aquaculture: A Growing Problem for Human and Animal Health and for the Environment. Environmental Microbiology, 8, 1137-1144.

Castro, D. M. (1994). Peces del Putumayo sector Puerto Leguízamo. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Putumayo, Servigráfico.

Cato, J.C., & Brown, C.L. (2003). Marine Ornamental Species: Collection, Culture, and Conservation. Iowa State Press.

Davenport, K.E. (1996). Characteristics of the Current International Trade in Ornamental Fish, with Special Reference to the European Union. Scientific and Technical Review OIE, 15, 435-443.

Evers, H-G., Pinnegar, J., & Taylor, M. (2019) Where Are They All From? Sources and Sustainability in the Ornamental Freshwater Fish Trade. Journal of Fish Biology 26, 909–916.

FAO. (2003). Report on the Fourth Session of the Advisory Committee on Fisheries Research, Rome, 10–13 December, 2002. FAO Fisheries Report No. 699. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Fujimoto, R.Y., Malta, H., Da Costa, N., Silva do Couto, M., Brandão, R., Guimarães, P., Dos Santos, F., Menezes, F., Silva, K. & Holanda, F. (2020). Is There Sustainability for “Satellite” Ornamental Fishing Regions? A Case Study of Guamá River basin-Pará–Brasil. Fisheries Research, 221, 105354.

Galvis-Vergara, G., Mojica-Corso, J., Provenzano-Rizzi, F., Lasso-Alcalá, C., Taphorn, D., Royero, R. & Castellanos-Castillo, C. (2007). Peces de la Orinoquia colombiana con énfasis en especies de interés ornamental. Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural INCODER y Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Gerstner, C., Ortega, H., Sánchez, H. & Graham, D.L. (2006). Effects of the Freshwater Aquarium Trade on Wild Fish Populations in Differentially-Fished Areas of the Peruvian Amazon. Fish Biol. 68, 862–875.

Gómez, L.N. (2002). Aspectos biológicos y económicos de la captura, transporte, acopio y comercialización de peces ornamentales en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana). Estudio de caso para Osteoglossiformes y Siluriformes (Teleostei; Pisces) Ornamentales. (Trabajo degrado) Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Guzmán-Maldonado, A.L. & Lasso, C.A. (2014). Análisis comparativo (1990-2014) de la pesquería de peces ornamentales en el departamento del Amazonas, Colombia. Biota Colombiana, 15(1), 83-108.

Guzmán-Maldonado, A., Macedo-Lopes, P., Rodríguez-Fernández, C., Lasso-Alcala, C., & Sumalia, U. (2017). Transboundary Fisheries Management in the Amazon: Assessing Current Policies for the Management of the Ornamental Silver Arawana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum). Marine Policy, 76, 192-199.

INFOFISH FAO. (2016). The Global Trade in Ornamental Fish. Day INFOFISH International, 4.

Jayalal, L. & Ramachandran, A. (2012). Export Trend of Indian Ornamental Fish Industry. Agric. Biol. 3(11), 439-451.

Landines, M., Sanabria, A. & Daza, P. (2007). Producción de peces ornamentales en Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia e INCODER.

Lango, F., Castañeda-Chávez, M., Zamora-Castro, J., Hernández-Zárate, G., Ramírez-Barragán, M. & Solís-Moran, E. (2012). La acuarofilia de espécies ornamentales marinas: un mercado de retos y oportunidades. Latin American. Journal of Aquatic Research, 40(1), 12-21.

Livengood, E. & Chapman, FA. (2007). The Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction with Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish Ownership. University of Florida IFAS Extensión.

Mancera-Rodríguez, N. & Álvarez-León, R. (2008). Comercio de peces ornamentales en Colombia. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 13(1), 23-52.

Moreau, M.A. & Coomes, O.T. (2007). Aquarium Fish Exploitation in Western Amazonia: Conservation Issues in Peru. Environmental Conservation, 34(1), 12–22.

Moreno, P. & Duque, S. (2004). Peces ornamentales comercializados en Leticia, Colombia. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Básicas Universidad Militar, 24, 129-36.

Naciones Unidas, Propmex & Biocomercio. (2005). Conferencia para el comercio y el desarrollo UNCTAD diagnóstico del sector acuicultura para el desarrollo de bionegocios en el Perú, Lima, marzo.

Olivier, K. (2001). The Ornamental Fish Market. FAO/Globefish Research Programme, 67. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Ortega-Lara, A. (2016). Guía visual de los principales peces ornamentales continentales de Colombia. Serie Recursos Pesqueros de Colombia. AUNAP.

Ortega-Lara, A., Puentes, V., Barbosa, L.S., Mojica, H., Gómez, S.M., Polanco-Rengifo, O. (Eds.). Autoridad Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca AUNAP. Fundación Funindes.

Ortega-Lara, A., Cruz-Quintana, Y. & Puentes, V. (Eds.). (2015). Dinámica de la actividad pesquera de peces ornamentales continentales en Colombia. Serie Recursos Pesqueros de Colombia AUNAP. Autoridad Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca AUNAP, Fundación Funindes.

Parada-Guevara, S.L. (2010). Descripción de los procesos de captura y postcaptura de dos especies de Loricáridos comercializados en el departamento del Meta y propuesta de intervención como estrategia indirecta de conservación. (Tesis Maestría). Universidad de los Llanos, Colombia.

Pelicice, F.M. & Agostinho, A. (2008). Fish Passage Facilities as Ecological Traps in Large Neotropical Rivers. Conserv Biol., 22(1). 180-188.

Prada-Pedreros, S., González-Forero, J. & Mondragón-Estupiñán, J. (2009). Capturas ícticas incidentales de la pesca ornamental en el período de aguas bajas en el área de influencia de Puerto Carreño, Orinoquia colombiana. Universitas Scientiarum., 14(3). 173-186.

Portz, D., Woodley, C., & Cech, J. (2006). Stress-Associated Impacts of Short-Term Holding on Fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 16(2), 125-170.

Ramírez-Gil, H., Carrillo, L., Lacera, E. & Ajiaco, R.E. (2001). La pesca de especies de interés ornamental en el área de influencia de Puerto Carreño. En H. Ramírez-Gil & R.H. Ajiaco-Martínez (eds.), La pesca en la Baja Orinoquia colombiana: pasado, presente y futuro. Instituto Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura, INPA.

Raghavan, R., Dahanukar, N., Tlusty, M., Rhyne, A., Kumar, K., Molur, S., & Rosser, A. (2013). Uncovering an Obscure Trade: Threatened Freshwater Fishes and the Aquarium Pet Markets. Biological Conservation, 164, 158–169.

Rhyne, A., Rotjan, R., Bruckner, A., & Tlusty, M. (2009). Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries. Plos One, 4(12), 8413.

Rowley, J.D., Emmet, D.A., & Voen, S. (2008). Harvest, Trade and Conservation of the Asian Arowana Scleropages formosus in Cambodia. Aquatic Conservation, 18(7). 1255–1262.

Sales, J. & Janssens, G. (2003). Nutrient Requirements of Ornamental Fish. A Review. Aquatic Living Resources, 16(6), 533-541.

Sampaio, F. & Freire, C. (2016). An Overview of Stress Physiology of Fish Transport: Changes in Water Quality as a Function of Transport Duration. Fish and Fisheries, 17(4), 1055-1072.

Sánchez-Páez, C.L. & Muñoz-Torres, S.E. (2015). Marco institucional y normativo de la actividad pesquera ornamental continental en Colombia. En A. Ortega-Lara, Y. Cruz-Quintana & V. Puentes (eds.), Dinámica de la actividad pesquera de peces ornamentales continentales en Colombia. Serie Recursos Pesqueros de Colombia AUNAP. Autoridad Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca AUNAP, Fundación Funindes.

Santana-Piñeros, A.M. & Franco-García, S.L. (2015). Dinámica de la captura y acopio de peces ornamentales continentales de Colombia. En A. Ortega-Lara, Y. Cruz-Quintana & V. Puentes (eds.), Dinámica de la actividad pesquera de peces ornamentales continentales en Colombia. Serie Recursos Pesqueros de Colombia AUNAP. Autoridad Nacional de Acuicultura y Pesca AUNAP, Fundación Funindes.

Schreck, C.B., Tort, L., Anthony, P., Colin, F., & Brauner, J. (2016). Biology of Stress in Fish, (First ed.), Academic Press.

Stevens, C.H., Croft, D.P., Paull, G.C., & Tyle, C.R. (2017). Stress and welfare in ornamental fishes: what can be learned from aquaculture? Fish Biology, 91(2), 409-428.

Tlusty, M., Dowd, S., & Raghavan, R. (2008). Saving Forests Through the Fisheries Ornamental Fishes as a Route to Avoid Deforestation. Ornamental Fish International, 56, 21–25.

Velasco-Santamaría, Y., Torres-Tabares, A., Ramírez-Saray, J., Cruz-Casallas, P., Ramírez-Merlano, J., Quiroga-Sánchez, E., & Aya-Baquero, E. (2017). Hábitos alimenticios de Leporinus friderici (Anostomidae: Teleostei) durante un ciclo hidrobiológico en el río Vaupés, Colombia. Revista de Biología Tropical, 65(2), 827-842.

Velasco, J. & Gutiérrez, M. (2019). Aspectos nutricionales de peces ornamentales de agua dulce. Revista Politécnica, 15(30), 83-93.

Zafra, A.M., Díaz, M.E., Dávila, F.A., Vela, K., & Colchado, J.P. (2018). Catalogue of Ornamental Fishes in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru. Arnaldoa, 25(2), 757-786.

Zúñiga, P.T. (2010). Lineamientos de gestión ambiental para el control del tráfico ilícito de peces ornamentales dulceacuícolas de las cuencas Amazonas y Orinoco. (Tesis de maestría), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.


Download data is not yet available.