Morphological characterization of elite cacao trees (<i>Theobroma cacao</i> L.) in Tumaco, Nariño, Colombia

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

William Ballesteros P.
Tulio César Lagos B.
Hugo Ferney L.

Resumen

The cacao has become an essential part of the fight against the effects of illegal crops and rural poverty in Colombia. Because of their bromatological characteristics, cocoa beans are preferred in markets. However, there are few studies on the variability of the regional genotypes. The goal of this study was to characterize the cacao trees in Tumaco, Nariño (Colombia) and establish their morpho-agronomic variability. Plant collections were conducted in five production zones of the municipality between 0 to 270 m. On each farm, the productivity and plant health variables were recorded for the outstanding plants. The characterization was carried out using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Cluster analysis. In the PCA, the first five components explained 70.2% of the variation. The first three components were characterized by productivity, while the last two components showed a low pod and grain index. In the MCA, the first three factors expressed 39.5% of the variation. The first three corresponded to the cundeamor cacao, acute pod apex, absence of anthocyanin in ripe fruits, without notable pulvinus, staminodes without anthocyanins, and moderately susceptible to Moniliophthora perniciosa. The last two components reported tolerance to M. roreri and Crinnipellis perniciosa, intense anthocyanin pigmentation on the floral buttons and Angoleta-shaped fruit. The selected genotypes showed important characteristics that must be analyzed with molecular and sensorial analyses.

Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo

Referencias

Adewale, D.B., O.O. Adeigbe., O.L. Sobowale, and D.S Dada. 2014. Breeding value of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) for pod and bean traits: A consequential advance in Nigerian cocoa breeding program. Not. Sci. Biol. 6(2), 214-219

Aranzazu, F. and A. Agudelo, A. 2009. Reunión regional de cacaoteros. Formulación del plan de desarrollo departamental de Nariño. Tumaco, Colombia.

Arguello, C.O., F.L. O. Mejía, N. Contreras, and J. Toloza. 1999. Evaluación, introducción y multiplicación de Árboles elite de cacao como estrategia de productividad para el nororiente Colombiano. Informe final proyecto. Corpocia, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Ayestas, E., L. Orozco, C. Astorga, R.M. Unguía, and C. Vega. 2013. Caracterización de Árboles promisorios de cacao en fincas orgánicas de Waslala, Nicaragua. Agroforestería en las Américas (49), 18-25

Ballesteros P., W. 2011. Caracterización morfológica de árboles élite de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en el municipio de Tumaco, Nariño, Colombia. M.Sc thesis. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Nariño, Pasto, Colombia.

Bekele, F.L and I. Bekele. 1996. A sampling of the phenetic diversity of cacao in the international Cacao Gene Bank of Trinidad. Crop Sci. 36 (1):57-64.

Cartay, R. 1997. La economía del cacao en Venezuela. pp. 129-146. In: Proc. I Congreso Venezolano del Cacao y su Industria. Maracay, Venezuela.

Casa Luker. 2012. Cacao fino de aroma. http://www.lukeringredients.com/en/home; consulted: January, 2016.

Chessman, E.E. 1944. Notes on the nomenclature, classification and possible relationships of cocoa populations. Trop. Agr. 21, 144-159. Doi: 10.1038/hdy.1994.166

Chumacero de Schawe, C., W. Durka, T. Tscharntke, I. Hensen, and M. Kessler. 2013. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia. Am. J. Bot. 100, 2271-2279. Doi: 10.3732/ajb.1300025

Clement, C.R., M. de Cristo-Araújo., G.C. d'Eeckenbrugge, A. Alves Pereira, and D. Picanço-Rodrigues. 2010. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops. Diversity 2, 72-106. Doi: 10.3390/d2010072

De Almeida, A.A.F. and R.R. Valle. 2007. Ecophysiology of the cacao tree. Braz. J. Plant Physiol 19(4), 425- 448 [

Dos Santos-Dias, L.A., J.P. Barriga, P.Y. Kageyama, and M.V. Cordeiro de Almeida. 2003. Variation and its distribution in wild cacao populations from the Brazilian Amazon. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 46(4), 507-514.

Efombagn, M.I.B., O. Sounigo, M. Nyasse, M. Manzanares-Dauleu, and A.B. Eskes. 2009. Phenotypic variation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) on farms and in the gene bank in Cameroon. J. Plant Crop Sci. 1(6), 258-264.

Engels, J.N. 1986. The identification of cacao cultivars. Acta Hortic.182, 195-203. Doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.182.23

Engels, J.N., B.G. Bartley, and G. Enriquez. 1980. Cacao descriptors, their states and modus operandi. Turrialba 30(2), 209-218.

Engels, J.M.M. 1993. The use of botanical descriptors for cacao characterization. CATIE experiences. pp. 69-76. In: Proceedings of the international work- shop on conservation, characterization and utilization of cacao genetic resources in the 21th Century. The Cacao Research Unit, Trinidad.

Enríquez, G.A. and J. Soria. 1981. Internacional cacao cultivar catalogue. Technical Bulletin No 6. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica.

Escobar, J.E. 2008. Caracterización morfológica in situ de árboles regionales sobresalientes de cacao Theobroma cacao L, en los núcleos productivos del municipio de Tumaco - Nariño. Undergraduate thesis. FACIA, Universidad de Nariño, Pasto, Colombia.

Fedecacao. 2004. Beneficio y características físico - químicas del cacao (Theobroma cacao L). Fondo Nacional del Cacao, Produmedios, Bogotá.

Graziani de Farinas, L., L. Ortiz de Bertorelli, J. Angulo, and P. Parra. 2002. Características físicas del fruto de cacaos tipos criollo, forastero y trinitario de la localidad de Cumboto, Venezuela. Agron. Trop. 52(3), 343-362.

Holdridge, L. 1987. Ecología basada en zonas de vida. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura, San José, Costa Rica.

ICCO (International Cacao Organization). 2016. Decreto ICC/71/7 Características del cacao fino y de aroma. http://www.icco.org/about-cacao/fine-or-flavour-cacao.html; consulted: January, 2016.

ICCO (International Cacao Organization). 2014. Latest Quarterly Bulletin of Cacao Statistic. http://www.icco.org/statistics/quarterly-bulletin-cocoa-statistics.html; consulted: January, 2016.

Icontec. 2003. Cacao en grano. Norma técnica Colombiana 1252. Instituto Colombiana de Normas Técnicas y Certificación, Bogotá.

Ji, K., D. Zhang, L.A. Motilal, M. Boccara, P. Lachenaud, and L.W. Meinhardt. 2012. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Honduras and Nicaragua as revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 60: 441-453. Doi: 10.1007/s10722-012-9847-1

Lachenaud, P., F. Bonnot, and G. Oliver. 1999. Use of floral descriptors to study variability in wild cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L) in French Guiana. Genet Resour. Crop. Evol. 46, 491-500.

Lerceteau, E., J. Quiroz, J. Soria, S. Flipo, V. Pétiard, and D. Crouzilat. 1997. Genetic differentiation among Ecuadorian Theobroma cacao L. accessions using DNA and morphological analyses. Euphytica 95, 77-87. Doi: 10.1023/A:1002993415875

Londoño M., J., D.M. Gil V., S.B. Aguilar M., F.A. Rivera P., and G.A. López G. 2011. Caracterización molecular de clones de Theobroma cacao L., por medio de marcadores moleculares microsatélites. Luna Azul 32:52-60. Doi: 10.17151/luaz.2011.32.6

Loor, R.G., A.M. Risterucci, B. Courtois, O. Fouet, M. Jeanneau, E. Rosenquist, F. Amores, A. Vasco, M. Medina, and C. Lanaud. 2009. Tracing the native ancestors of the modern Theobroma cacao L. population in Ecuador. Tree Genet. Genomes 5, 421- 433. Doi: 10.1007/s11295-008-0196-3

Marcano, M., S. Morales, M.T. Hoyer, B. Courtois, A.M. Risterucci, O. Fouet, T. Pugh, E. Cros, V. Gonzalez, M. Dagert, and C. Lanaud. 2009. A genomewide admixture mapping study for yield factors and morphological traits in a cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) population. Tree Genet. Genomes 5, 329-337. Doi: 10.1007/s11295-008-0185-6

Morillo, C.Y., A.C. Morillo., J.E. Muñoz F., W. Ballesteros P., and A. González. 2014. Molecular characterization of 93 genotypes of cocoa (Theobroma cacao O.). Agron. Colomb. 32(3), 315-325. Doi: 10.15446/agron.colomb.v32n3.46879

Motamayor, J.C., A.M. Risterucci., P.A. López., C.F. Ortiz., A. Moreno., C. Lanaud. 2002. Cacao domestication. In: The origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas. Heredity 89, 380-386. doi: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800156

Motamayor, J.C., P. Lachenaud, J.W. da Silva e Mota R. Loor, D.N. Kuhn, J.S. Brown, and R.J. Schnell. 2008. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): 1-8. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003311

Motilal, L.A., D. Zhang, P. Umaharan, S. Mischke, V. Mooleedhar, and L.W. Meinhardt. 2010. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize - genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Plant Genet. Resour. 8, 106-115. Doi: 10.1017/S1479262109990232

N'Goran, J.A.K., V. Laurent., A.M. Risterucci, and C. Lanaud. 1994. Comparative genetic diversity studies of Theobroma cacao L. using RFLP and RAPD markers. Heredity (1994) 73, 589-597. Doi: 10.1038/hdy.1994.166

Ortiz de Bertorelli, L. and L. Graziani de Farinas. 1995. Caracterización física y química de genotipos de cacao en el estado Aragua. Instituto de química y Tecnología. Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela.

Ostendorf, F.W. 1965. Identifying characters for cacao clones crop. pp. 89-110. In: Reuniao do Comité Técnico Interamericano do Cacau, VI Salvador, Bahía, Brasil.

Pound, F.J. 1996. The genetic constitution of the cacao Crop. pp. 27-29. In: Annual report on Cacao Research. Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad.

Preciado, O., C.I. Ocampo, and W. Ballesteros Possú. 2011. Caracterización del sistema tradicional de producción de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), en seis núcleos productivos del municipio de Tumaco, Nariño. Revista de Ciencias Agrícolas 28(2), 58-69.

Quiroz, J. and J. Soria, J. 1994. Caracterización fenotípica del Cacao Nacional del Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador. Boletín Técnico No. 74. INIAP, Estación Experimental Tropical Pichilingue, Quevedo-El Empalme, Ecuador.

Sánchez, A. and O. Tortolero. 1996. Caracterización y establecimiento de un Banco de Germoplasma de cacao criollo en el litoral aragüeño. Informe Final. Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP), Estación Experimental del Estado Miranda, Venezuela.

Sánchez, I., L.A. Zárate, G. Gallego, and J. Tohme. 2007. Análisis de la diversidad genética de accesiones de Theobroma cacao L. del banco de conservación a cargo de Corpoica. Corpoica Cienc. Tecnol. Agropecu. 8(2): 26-31

Soria, V.J. 1969. Principales variedades de cacao cultivadas en América Tropical. Turrialba 16(3), 261-265.

Thomas E., M. van Zonneveld, J. Loo., T. Hodgkin, G. Galluzzi, and J. van Etten. 2012. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal. PLoS ONE 7(10). Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047676

Vallejo, G. and E. Peña. 2006. Centro Regional de Investigación el Mira. Plegable promocional N° 47. Corpoica, Tumaco, Colombia.

Zhang, D., W.J. Martínez, E.S. Johnson, E. Somarriba, W. Phillips-Mora, C. Astorga, S. Mischke, and L.W. Meinhardt. 2012. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in a new distinct Theobroma cacao L. population in Bolivia. Genet. Res. Crop Evol. 59, 239-252. Doi: 10.1007/s10722-011-9680-y

Zhang, D., S. Mischk, S.E. Johnson, W. Phillips-Mora, and L. Meinhardt. 2008. Molecular characterization of an international cacao collection using microsatellites markers. Tree Genet. Genomes 5, 1-10. Doi: 10.1007/s11295-008-0163-z

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.