Strength benefit of sawdust/wood ash amendment in cement stabilization of an expansive soil
Keywords:ash, roads, soil, strength, waste management, waste material
The investigation evaluated the strength benefits obtained by amending cement stabilization of an expansive soil by using saw dust ash (SDA), a waste generated in wood milling industries due to burning. The experimental program involved the preparation of cylindrical specimens of size 38 mm x 76mm for evaluating the unconfined compression strength (UCS) of the cement stabilized and amended samples cured for varying periods of 2 hours, 7, 14 and 28 days. Two cement contents of 2% and 6% by weight of soil were adopted to stabilize the soil. The SDA amended cement stabilized samples adopted SDA contents of 5%, 10% and 20% by weight of soil. Strength gain trends for the amended samples were also fitted based on the results of the UCS tests. In order to analyse benefits in pavement design and thickness reduction, the UCS values were used to predict the CBR value of the specimens based on which the reduction in pavement thickness was calculated for different traffic densities. The investigation revealed that 5% SDA amendment of cement stabilization can result in up to 26% increase in early strength and 20% increase in delayed strength. Based on the predicted CBR values, pavement thickness can be reduced up to 8.3%.
 J. James, and P. K. Pandian, “Soil Stabilization as an Avenue for Reuse of Solid Wastes : A Review,” Acta Tech. Napocensis Civ. Eng. Arch., vol. 58 (1), pp. 50-76, 2015.
 H. Karim, M. Al-Recaby, and M. Nsaif, “Stabilization of soft clayey soils with sawdust ashes,” MATEC Web Conf., vol. 162 (01006), pp. 1-7, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201816201006.
 W. A. Butt, K. Gupta, and J. N. Jha, “Strength behavior of clayey soil stabilized with saw dust ash,” Geo-Engineering, vol. 7 (1), p. 18, Dec. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40703-016-0032-9.
 T. H. T. Ogunribido, “Geotechnical Properties of Saw Dust Ash Stabilized Southwestern Nigeria Lateritic Soils,” Environ. Res. Eng. Manag., vol. 2 (60), pp. 29-33, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.986.
 G. R. Otoko, and B. K. Honest, “Stabilization of Nigerian Deltaic Laterites with Sawdust Ash,” Int. J. Sci. Res. Manag., vol. 2 (8), pp. 1287-1292, 2014.
 A. O. Ilori, “Investigation of Geotechnical Properties of a Lateritic Soil with Sawdust Ash,” IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng., vol. 12 (1), pp. 11-14, 2015.
 S. Khan, and H. Khan, “Improvement of mechanical properties by waste sawdust ash addition into soil,” Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 20 (7), pp. 1901-1914, 2015.
 B. D. Nath, G. Sarkar, S. Siddiqua, and R. Islam, “Geotechnical Properties of Wood Ash-Based Composite Fine-Grained Soil,” Hindawi, vol. 2018, p. 7, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9456019.
 E. Kufre, C. Chijioke, E. Edidiong, and C. Imoh, “Influence of Sawdust Disposal on the Geotechnical Properties of Soil,” Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 22 (12), pp. 4769-4780, 2017.
 A. Venkatesh, and G. S. Reddy, “Effect Of Waste Saw Dust Ash On Compaction And Permeability Properties Of Black Cotton Soil,” Int. J. Civ. Eng. Res., vol. 7 (1), pp. 27-32, 2016.
 E. A. Okunade, “The Effect of Wood Ash and Sawdust Admixtures on the Engineering Properties of Burnt Laterite Clay Brick,” J of Applied Science, vol. 8 (6), pp. 1042-1048, Jan. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2008.1042.1048.
 J. E. Edeh, I. O. Agbede, and A. Tyoyila, “Evaluation of Sawdust Ash – Stabilized Lateritic Soil as Highway Pavement Material,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 26 (2), pp. 367-373, Feb. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000795.
 K. J. Osinubi, J. E. Edeh, and W. O. Onoja, “Sawdust Ash Stabilization of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement,” J. ASTM Int., vol. 9 (2), pp. 1-10, 2011.
 A. A. Raheem, B. S. Olasunkanmi, and C. S. Folorunso, “Saw Dust Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete,” Organ. Technol. Manag. Constr. An Int. J., vol. 4 (2), pp. 474-480, 2012.
 D. N. Little, “Handbook for Stabilization of Pavement Subgrades and Base Courses with Lime,” Austin, Texas, 1995.
 J. James and P. K. Pandian, “Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement / Lime Stabilization of Soils,” Adv. Civ. Eng., vol. 2016, Article ID 1267391, pp. 1-17, 2016.
 K. D. Rao, M. Anusha, P. R. T. Pranav, and G. Venkatesh, “A Laboratory Study on the Stabilization of Marine Clay Using Saw Dust and Lime,” Ijesat] Int. J. Eng. Sci. Adv. Technol., vol. 2 (4), pp. 851-862, 2012.
 E. S. Nnochiri, H. O. Emeka, and M. Tanimola, “Geotechnical Characteristics of Lateritic Soil Stabilized With Sawdust Ash-Lime Mixtures,” Stavební Obz. - Civ. Eng. J., vol. 26 (1), pp. 66-76, 2017.
 Z. Z. Shawl, V. Praksh, and V. Kumar, “Use of Lime and Saw Dust Ash in Soil,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 6 (2), pp. 1682-1689, 2017.
 S. T. Tyagher, J. T. Utsev, and T. Adagba, “Suitability of Saw Dust Ash-Lime Mixture for Production of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks,” Niger. J. Technol., vol. 30 (1), pp. 1-6, 2011.
 A. J. Gana, and J. B. Tabat, “Stabilization of Clay Soil with Cement and Sawdust,” CARD Int. J. Eng. Emerg. Sci. Discov., vol. 2 (3), pp. 1-27, 2017.
 H. I. Owamah, E. Atikpo, O. E. Oluwatuyi, and A. M. Oluwatomisin, “Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Cement-Sawdust Ash for Highway Construction,” J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1378–1381, 2017.
 BIS, IS 2720 Methods of Test for Soils:Part 5 Determination of Liquid and Plastic Limit. India, 1985, pp. 1-16.
 BIS, IS 2720 Methods of Test for Soils:Part 6 Determination of Shrinkage Factors. India, 1972, pp. 1-12.
 BIS, IS 2720 Methods of Test for Soils Part 3:Determination of Specific Gravity/Section 1 Fine Grained Soils. India, 1980, pp. 1-8.
 BIS, IS 2720 Methods of Test for Soils:Part 7 Determination of Water Content-Dry Density Relation Using Light Compaction. India, 1980, pp. 1-9.
 BIS, IS 2720 Methods of Test for Soils:Part 10 - Determination of Unconfined Compressive Strength. India, 1991, pp. 1-4.
 BIS, IS 2720 Methods of Test for Soils:Part 40 Determination of Free Swell Index of Soils. India, 1977, pp. 1-5.
 BIS, IS 1498 Classification and Identification of Soils for General Engineering Purposes. India, 1970, pp. 4-24.
 Transport Research Laboratory, “Literature Review:Stabilised Sub-Bases for Heavily Trafficked Roads,” 2003. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/literature-review-stabilised-sub-bases-for-heavily-trafficked-roads.
 J. James, P. K. Pandian, K. Deepika, J. M. Venkatesh, V. Manikandan, and P. Manikumaran, “Cement Stabilized Soil Blocks Admixed with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash,” Journal of Engineering, vol. 2016, pp. 1-9, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7940239.
 M. Kharun, and A. P. Svintsov, “Soil-cement ratio and curing conditions as the factors of soil-concrete strength,” KEM, vol. 730, pp. 358-363, Feb. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.730.358.
 J. James, and P. K. Pandian, “A Study on the Early UCC Strength of Stabilized Soil Admixed with Industrial Waste Materials,” Int. J. Earth Sci. Eng., vol. 7 (3), pp. 1055-1063, 2014.
 S. Saride, A. J. Puppala, and S. R. Chikyala, “Swell-shrink and strength behaviors of lime and cement stabilized expansive organic clays,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 85, pp. 39-45, Nov. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.09.008.
 E. A. Basha, R. Hashim, H. B. Mahmud, and A. S. Muntohar, “Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 19 (6), pp. 448-453, Jul. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2004.08.001.
 S. Chowdhury, M. Mishra, and O. Suganya, “The incorporation of wood waste ash as a partial cement replacement material for making structural grade concrete: An overview,” Ain Shams Engeneering Journal, vol. 6 (2), pp. 429-437, Jun. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2014.11.005.
 F. Meulenkamp, and M. A. Grima, “Application of neural networks for the prediction of the UCS from Equotip hardness,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 36 (1), pp. 29-39, Jan. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-9062(98)00173-9.
 A. K. Sabat, “Statistical Models for Prediction of Swelling Pressure of a Stabilized Expansive Soil,” Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 17, pp. 837-846, 2012.
 M. Tao, and Z. Zhang, “Enhanced Performance of Stabilized By-Product Gypsum,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., vol. 17 (6), pp. 617-623, Dec. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2005)17:6(617).
 Y. Xizhong, L. Shudong, and C. Wei, “Silt Subgrade Modification and Stabilization with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Carbide Lime in Areas with a Recurring High Groundwater,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2010, pp. 2063-2067.
 P. V. Sivapullaiah, and A. K. Jha, “Gypsum Induced Strength Behaviour of Fly Ash-Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil,” Geotech. Geol. Eng., vol. 32 (5), pp. 1261-1273, Oct. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-014-9799-7.
 J. James, and P. K. Pandian, “Role of Phosphogypsum and Ceramic Dust in Amending the Early Strength Development of a Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil,” Int. J. Sustain. Constr. Eng. Technol., vol. 7 (2), pp. 38-49, 2016.
 S. M. Al-zaidyeen, and A. N. S. Al-qadi, “Effect of Phosphogypsum As a Waste Material in Soil Stabilization of Pavement Layers,” Jordan J. Civ. Eng., vol. 9 (1), pp. 1-7, 2015.
 J. James, and P. K. Pandian, “Development of Early Strength of Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil: Effect of Red Mud and Egg Shell Ash,” Acta Tech. Corviniensis - Bull. Eng., vol. 9 (1), pp. 93-100, 2016.
 Z. Wang, X. Si-fa, and W. Guo-cai, “Study of Early Strength and Shrinkage Properties of Cement or Lime Solidified Soil,” Energy Procedia, vol. 16, pp. 302-306, Jan. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.01.050.
 J. James, and P. Kasinatha Pandian, “Bagasse Ash as an Auxiliary Additive to Lime Stabilization of an Expansive Soil: Strength and Microstructural Investigation,” Adv. Civ. Eng., vol. 2018, 2018.
 S. A. Lima, H. Varum, A. Sales, and V. F. Neto, “Analysis of the mechanical properties of compressed earth block masonry using the sugarcane bagasse ash,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 35, pp. 829-837, Oct. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.127.
 V. Greepala, and R. Parichartpreecha, “Effects of Using Flyash, Rice Husk Ash and Bagasse Ash as Replacement Materials on the Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Lateritic Soil-Cement Interlocking Blocks,” in Proceedings of 9th Australasian Masonry Conference, 2011, pp. 583-603.
 S. Bhuvaneshwari, R. G. Robinson, and S. R. Gandhi, “Behaviour of Lime Treated Cured Expansive Soil Composites,” Indian Geotech. J., vol. 44 (3), pp. 278-293, Sep. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-013-0081-3.
 C. A. O’Flaherty, H. T. David, and D. T. Davidson, “Relationship Between the California Bearing Ratio and the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Sand-Cement Mixtures,” Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., vol. 68 (1), pp. 341–356, 1961.
 O. F. Usluogullari, and C. Vipulanandan, “Stress-Strain Behavior and California Bearing Ratio of Artificially Cemented Sand,” J. Test. Eval., vol. 39 (4), p. 103165, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/JTE103165.
 A. Singh, Soil Engineering in Theory and Practice. Bombay, India: Asia Publishing House, 1967.
 S. Vijay, “Stress-strain and penetration characteristics of clay modified with crumb rubber,” Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, vol. 28 (49), pp. 65-75, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19053/01211129.v28.n49.2018.8745.
 Indian Roads Congress, IRC 37: Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements, no. July. New Delhi, India, 2012, pp. 1-104.
How to Cite
All articles included in the Revista Facultad de Ingeniería are published under the Creative Commons (BY) license.
Authors must complete, sign, and submit the Review and Publication Authorization Form of the manuscript provided by the Journal; this form should contain all the originality and copyright information of the manuscript.
The authors who publish in this Journal accept the following conditions:
a. The authors retain the copyright and transfer the right of the first publication to the journal, with the work registered under the Creative Commons attribution license, which allows third parties to use what is published as long as they mention the authorship of the work and the first publication in this Journal.
b. Authors can make other independent and additional contractual agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (eg, include it in an institutional repository or publish it in a book) provided they clearly indicate that the work It was first published in this Journal.
c. Authors are allowed and recommended to publish their work on the Internet (for example on institutional or personal pages) before and during the process.
review and publication, as it can lead to productive exchanges and a greater and faster dissemination of published work.
d. The Journal authorizes the total or partial reproduction of the content of the publication, as long as the source is cited, that is, the name of the Journal, name of the author (s), year, volume, publication number and pages of the article.
e. The ideas and statements issued by the authors are their responsibility and in no case bind the Journal.