Use of organophosphates by farmers in the community of Guaslán- Ecuador and hematological changes

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Autores

Johanna Elizabeth Esparza-Olalla https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3425-0599
Francy Carolina Forero-Lugo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5376-9102
Marcela Alejandra Mardones-Montanares, M.Sc. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5629-0567

Abstract

In Ecuador, the use of organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture has become a public health problem, according to bibliographic data, people exposed to these agrochemicals in occupational ways show alterations in their health. This study was focused on the assessment of hematological and morphological parameters of farmers exposed in an occupational way to these pesticides. It is an observational, descriptive cross-sectional and correlational study. In the community of Guaslán-Ecuador approximately 400 people are engaged in agriculture, of which 186 individuals were part of the study freely and voluntarily. 53% of the population were women, 47% men. The assessment of the blood count allowed to determine quantitative alterations such as: polyglobulia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis and platelet changes. Cellular morphology was assessed with the analysis of the peripheral blood smear that showed qualitative alterations in red, white and platelet cells. The most relevant findings were: neutrophils with toxic granulation, reactive lymphocytes, hypersegmentation, large platelets and stomatocytosis. Erythrocyte cholinesterase obtained 13% of the population. The 99% of the population presented at least one quantitative alteration and 80% qualitative alterations. Cholinesterase activity was inversely proportional to the exposure time. It is concluded that organophosphorus pesticides are capable of producing alterations at the cellular and enzymatic level. It is recommended to include the blood count and peripheral blood smear as markers of hemotoxicity in occupational tests or epidemiological profile for people exposed to this type of agrochemicals.

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All papers included in the Revista Ciencia y Agricultura are published under  Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

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