Searching for an alternative to manage powdery scab, caused by <i>Spongospora subterranean</i>, in potato

Main Article Content


Paula Mesa
Celsa García
Alba Marina Cotes


One of the main problems in potato production is powdery scab, caused by the protozoan Spongospora subterranea. Currently, there are no effective control strategies for this pathogen, which causes root damage and, therefore, reduces tuber quality. In order to develop a biocontrol alternative for powdery scab, we assessed the effect of eight potential microbial agents belonging to the genera Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces spp. in the reduction of the disease. Additionally, we evaluated biocarbon, chitin and chitosan, which are organic additives with a biocontrol potential in other pathosystems. Initially, a trial was established to obtain the development of galls in two different locations (Mosquera and Subachoque, Cundinamarca) with two concentrations of protozoan inoculum. Eight weeks after sowing, the disease severity was determined counting the number of galls per plant. Because of the consistent development of the disease, the assays were established in the municipality of Subachoque in potted plants with naturally infested soil (1×103 sporosori/g of soil). All microbial biocontrol agents showed a reduction in gall development (P>0.05). Streptomyces misionensis Ac006 caused the largest reduction in severity (51.41%). Among the organic additives, 0.5% chitosan had the greatest (62.58%) effect on disease reduction, a significant (P≤0.05) effect. Our results suggest possible alternatives for the sustainable management of powdery scab in potato.


Article Details


The copyright of the articles and illustrations are the property of the Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas. The editors authorize the use of the contents under the Creative Commons license Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). The correct citation of the content must explicitly register the name of the journal, name (s) of the author (s), year, title of the article, volume, number, page of the article and DOI. Written permission is required from publishers to publish more than a short summary of the text or figures.


Anand, S. y J. Reddy. 2009. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma sp. against plant pathogen. Int. J. Agric. Sci. 1(2), 30-39. Doi:

Andres, Y., L. Giraud, C. Gerente y L. Cloirec. 2010. Antibacterial effects of chitosan powder: mechanisms of action. Environ. Techn. 28(12), 1356-1363. Doi:

Balendres, M., R. Tegg y C. Wilson. 2016. Key events in pathogenesis of Spongospora diseases in potato: a review. Australas. Plant Pathol. 45(3), 229-240. Doi:

Bastidas, L. 2010. Determinación de la capacidad biocontroladora de Pseudomonas spp. contra Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en el cultivo de papa. Tesis de maestría. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

Beauséjour, J., N. Clermont y C. Beaulieu. 2003. Effect of Streptomyces melanosporofaciens strain EF-76 and of chitosan on common scab of potato. Plant Soil 256(2), 463-468. Doi:

Beltrán, C. y E. Garcés. 2011. Selección de aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. con potencial biocontrolador de Rhizoctonia solani Kühn en papa bajo condiciones de casa de malla. Acta Biol. Colomb. 10(1), 82-83.

Brierley, J., L. Sullivan, S. Wale, A. Hilton, D. Kiezebrink y A. Lees. 2013. Relationship between Spongospora subterranea f. sp.subterranea soil inoculum level, host resistance and powdery scab on potato tubers in the field. Plant Pathol. 62(2), 413-420. Doi:

Caviedes, D. 2010. Aislamiento y selección de Pseudomonas sp. y Bacillus sp., promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en cultivo de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) con actividad antagónica frente a Fusarium oxysporum. Trabajo de grado en Microbiología industrial. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

Chirkov, S., A. Il’ina, N. Surgucheva, E. Letunova, Y. Varitsev, N. Tatarinova y V. Varlamov. 2001. Effect of chitosan on systemic viral infection and some defense responses in potato plants. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 48(6), 774-779. Doi:

Chung, W., R. Wu, C. Hsu, H. Huang y J. Huang. 2011. Application of antagonistic rhizobacteria for control of Fusarium seedling blight and basal rot of lily. Aust. Plant Pathol. 40(3), 269-276. Doi:

Cohen, E. 2001. Chitin synthesis and inhibition: a revisit. Pest Manag. Sci. 57(10), 946-950. Doi:

Corrales, C., C. Zuluaga, J. Cotes y E. González. 2012. Determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la liberación de zoosporas de Spongospora subterranea en bioensayos. Trop. Plant Pathol. 37(4), 239-245. Doi:

Cotes, A., A. Cárdenas y H. Pinzon. 2001. Effect of seed priming in the presence of Trichoderma koningii on seed and seedling disease induced in tomato by Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. IOBCWPRS Bull. 24, 259-263.

Díaz, A., P. Smith, P. Mesa, J. Zapata, D. Caviedes y A. Cotes. 2013. Control of Fusarium wilt in cape gooseberry by Trichoderma koningiopsis and PGPR. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 86, 89-94.

EL Hadrami, A., L. Adam, I. Hadrami y F. Daayf. 2010. Chitosan in plant protection. Mar. Drugs 8(4), 968. Doi:

Falloon, R., 2008. Control of powdery scab of potato: towards integrated disease management. Am. J. Potato Res. 85(4), 253-260. Doi:

Falloon, R., U. Merz, R. Butler, D. Curtin, R. Lister y S. Thomas. 2016. Root infection of potato by Spongospora subterranea: knowledge review and evidence for decreased plant productivity. Plant Pathol. 65(3), 422-434. Doi:

Ganeshan, G. y A. Kumar. 2005. Pseudomonas fluorescens, a potential bacterial antagonist to control plant diseases. J. Plant Interact. 1(3), 123-134. Doi:

Gilchrist, E., J. Soler, U. Merz y S. Reynaldi. 2011. Powdery scab effect on the potato Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena growth and yield. Trop. Plant Pathol. 36(6), 350-355. Doi:

Goy, R., D. de Britto y O. Assis. 2009. A review of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Polímeros 19(3), 241-247. Doi:

Hoyos, L., S. Jaramillo y S. Orduz. 2008. Evaluation of Trichoderma asperellum as bioregulator of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agr. Medellín 61(2), 4496-4502.

Jin, R., J. Suh, R. Park, Y. Kim, H. Krishnan y K. Kim. 2005. Effect of chitin compost and broth on biological control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Nematology 7(1), 125-132. Doi:

Melia, S. e I. Aryantha. 2010. The effects of Chitosan on antifungal activity of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai against Fusarium oxysporum. pp. 6-8. En: The 2nd International Biotechnology & Biodiversity Conference. Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

Mesa, P., C. Moreno y A. Cotes. 2014. Efecto promotor de crecimiento vegetal y biocontrolador de Trichoderma koningiopsis sobre Rhizoctonia solani en el cultivo de arroz. Actual. Biológicas 36, 242.

Moreno, C., F. Castillo, A. González, D. Bernal, Y. Jaimes, M. Chaparro, C. González, F. Rodriguez, S. Restrepo y A. Cotes. 2009. Biological and molecular characterization of the response of tomato plants treated with Trichoderma koningiopsis. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 74(2), 111-120. Doi:

Nakayama, T., M. Horita y T. Shimanuki. 2007. Spongospora subterranea soil contamination and its relationship to severity of powdery scab on potatoes. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 73(4), 229-234. Doi:

Nandakumar, R., S. Babu, R. Viswanathan, T. Raguchander y R. Samiyappan. 2001. Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33(4), 603-612. Doi:

Neuhauser, C. y J. Fargione. 2004. A mutualism-parasitism continuum model and its application to plant-mycorrhizae interactions. Ecol. Model. 177(3), 337-352. Doi:

Nielsen, S. y J. Larsen. 2004. Two Trichoderma harzianum-based bio-control agents reduce tomato root infection with Spongospora subterranea (Wallr.) Lagerh., f. sp.subterranea, the vector of Potato mop-top virus. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 111(2), 145-150. Doi:

Nunes da Silva, M., A. Cardoso, D. Ferreira, M. Brito, M. Pintado y M. Vasconcelos. 2014. Chitosan as a biocontrol agent against the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). For. Pathol. 44(5), 420-423. Doi:

Poomthongdee, N., K. Duangmal y W. Pathom-aree. 2015. Acidophilic actinomycetes from rhizosphere soil: diversity and properties beneficial to plants. J. Antibiot. 68(2), 106-114. Doi:

Puerta, S., L. Hoyos y E. González. 2008. Factors affecting the zoospore release of Spongospora subterranean (Wallroth) Lagerheim f. sp. subterranea Tomlinson. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agr. Medellín 61(2), 4503-4510.

Qu, X. y B. Christ. 2006. Single cystosorus isolate production and restriction fragment length polymorphism characterization of the obligate biotroph Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea. Phytopathology 96(10), 1157-1163. Doi:

Qu, X., L. Wanner y B. Christ. 2011. Multiplex real-time PCR (TaqMan) assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of potato powdery and common scab diseases and pathogens. J. Appl. Microbiol. 110(3), 769-777. Doi:

Restrepo, F., S. Jaramillo y M. Cotes. 2009. Effect of two microorganisms, mycorhize and pine wood shavings on the control of powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea) in potato. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agr. Medellín 62(2), 5047-5054.

Rivero, D. 2008. Identificación y control in vitro con quitosana y Trichoderma spp. de hongos que causan el manchado del grano en arroz (Oryza sativa L.). Rev. Protec. Veg. 23, 67-67.

Ruíz, C., L. Izquierdo, C. Moreno, M. Gómez y L. Villamizar. 2013. Development, stability and biocontrol activity of a formulation based on Pseudomonas fluorescens Ps06. Int. Organ. Biol. Integated Control-WPRS Bull. 86, 25-30.

Sastoque, E., A. Cotes, R. Rodríguez y A. Pedroza. 2010. Effect of nutrients and fermentation conditions on the production of biosurfactants using rhizobacteria isolated from fique plants. Univ. Sci. 15(3), 251-264.Doi:

Shah, F., R. Falloon, R. Butler y R. Lister. 2011. Low amounts of Spongospora subterranea sporosorus inoculum cause severe powdery scab, root galling and reduced water use in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Aust. Plant Pathol. 41(2), 219-228. Doi:

Siddiqui, I., S. Shaukat, I. Sheikh y A. Khan. 2006. Role of cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 in the suppression of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 22(6), 641-650. Doi:

Smith, A., C. Beltrán, M. Kusunoki, A. Cotes. K. Motohashi, T. Kondo y M. Deguchi, 2012. Diversity of soil-dwelling Trichoderma in Colombia and their potential as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 79(1), 74-85. Doi:

Soler, J., E. Gilchrist y J. Peréz. 2012a. Evaluación de microorganismos con potencial de promoción de crecimiento vegetal y biocontrol de Spongospora subterranea. Rev. Colomb. Biotecnol. 14(1), 157-170. Doi:

Soler, J., L.F. Uribe-L. y J. Peréz-N. 2012b. Differential distrubution of candidadate biocontrol bacteria against Spongospora subterranea in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro). Rev. Fac. Nac. Agr. Medellín 65(1), 6337-6348.

Sun, S., J. Wang, L. Zhu, D. Liao, M. Gu, L. Ren, Y. Kapulnik y G. Xu. 2012. An active factor from tomato root exudates plays an important role in efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis. PLoS ONE 7(8), e43385. Doi:

Szczech, M. y M. Shoda. 2004. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia damping-off of tomato by Bacillus subtilis combined with Burkholderia cepacia. J. Phytopathol. 152(10), 549-556. Doi:

Van De Graaf, P., S. Wale y A. Lees. 2007. Factors affecting the incidence and severity of Spongospora subterranea infection and galling in potato roots. Plant Pathol. 56(6), 1005-1013. Doi:

Vasyukova, N., S. Zinov’eva, L. Il’inskaya, E. Perekhod, G. Chalenko, N. Gerasimova, A.I. Varlamov y O. Ozeretskovskaya. 2001. Modulation of plant resistance to diseases by water-soluble chitosan. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 37(1), 103-109. Doi:

Zeng, D. e Y. Shi. 2009. Preparation and application of a novel environmentally friendly organic seed coating for rice. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89(13), 2181-2185. Doi:

Zhang, N., D. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Li, Q. Shen y R. Zhang. 2014. Effects of different plant root exudates and their organic acid components on chemotaxis, biofilm formation and colonization by beneficial rhizosphere-associated bacterial strains. Plant Soil 374(2), 689-700. Doi:


Download data is not yet available.