Current State of Cocoa Plantation: A Review of its Main Limitations

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Autores

Eduar Yovany Antolinez Sandoval
Pedro José Almanza Merchán
Ayda Fernanda Barona Rodriguez
Eliseo Polanco Díaz
Pablo Antonio Serrano Cely

Abstract

The cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) crop has become very important for Colombia in recent years, due to the increasing in cultivated areas and the exportation commitment of the national government. For 2018, there were in the country approximately 170,000 planted hectares. This species is cultivated between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, at altitudes between 0-1200 m.a.s.l. The main cocoa producers are located in the African continent (Ghana and Ivory Coast), which contribute approximately with 70% of world production. In America, the production focuses on fine and aroma cocoa crops, especially in countries such as Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, among others. Currently, this crop faces diverse challenges: scarce availability of labor, the existence of limiting diseases such as those caused by Moniliophthora roreri and Phythophthora spp., and the restrictions established by consuming countries due to the presence of certain heavy metals that are bioaccumulated by cocoa, and that can cause problems for human health. Therefore, the objective of this review is to analyze different variables that intervene in this crop as a consultation tool for producers and technicians interested in the cocoa production system, so that it becomes a decision-making instrument for the crop cultivation and the starting up implications.

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