Emotion evaluations as an appreciation of trust generated during the learning process of veterinary surgery


  • Heriberto Rodríguez-Frausto Unidad Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9608-5843
  • Fabiola Rochín-Berumen Unidad Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8676-7768
  • Eduardo Ruiz-Fernández Unidad Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7159-6927




Surgery, Confidence, Positive emotion, Negative emotion


Perceived confidence of veterinary surgery students was assessed through negative and positive emotions after a series of surgical sessions. A survey was administered to 80 veterinary surgery students after the conclusion of the surgical sessions. Six negative emotions and five positive emotions were evaluated. The data of negative and positive emotions were analyzed on a Likert scale. The surgeries were performed on dogs in the operating rooms of the Academic Unit. Surgeries of the upper respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary system, reproductive tract and musculoskeletal system were included. The surgical procedures performed allowed generating different emotions as the students acquired different surgical skills when manipulating soft and hard tissues of the mentioned organs and systems. Tension stood out in each of the surgical sessions performed, the other negative emotions showed movements depending on the type of surgeries, hence the first session marked more to certain emotions, continuing stable afterwards, except in the surgical session in the musculoskeletal system. The positive emotions showed a tendency to taste, desire and expectation to experience the action of the basic principles of surgery.


Download data is not yet available.


Anton, N.E., Mizota, T., Whiteside, J.A., Myers, E.M., Bean, E.A., Stefanidis, D. (2019). Mental skill training limits the decay in operative technical skill under stressful conditions results of a multisite, randomized controlled study. Surgery, 165(6) 1059–1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.01.011

Ba, S. & Hu, X. (2023). Measuring emotions in education using wearable devices: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 200, 104797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2023.104797

Bowlt, K., Murray, J., Herbert, G., Delisser, P., Ford-Fennah, V., Murrell, J., & Friend, E. (2011). Evaluation of the expectations, learning and competencies of surgical skills by undergraduate veterinary students performing canine ovariohysterectomies. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52(11), 587–594. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01120.x

Camacho-Morales, J., Slemp, G.R., Pekrun, R., Loderer, K., Hou, H., & Oades, L.G. (2021). Activity achievement emotions and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Educational Psycholgy Review, 33, 1051–1095. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09585-3

Cary, J., Farnsworth, C., Gay, J., & Carroll, H. (2017). Stakeholder expectations regarding the ability of new veterinary graduates to perform various diagnostic and surgical procedures. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 251(2), 172–184. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.251.2.172

Chrouser, K., Xu, J., Hallbeck, S., Weinger, M., & Partin, M. (2018). The influence of stress responses on surgical performance and outcomes: Literature review and the development of the surgical stress effects (SSE) framework. The American Journal of Surgery, 216(3), 573–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2018.02.017

DeMasi, S., Katsuta, E., & Takabe, K. (2016). Live animals for preclinical medical student surgical training. Edorium Journal of Surgery, 3(2), 24–31.

Drosdeck, J., Carraro, E., Arnold, M., Perry, K., Harzman, A., Nagel, R., Sinclair, L., & Muscarella, P. (2013). Porcine wet lab improves surgical skills in third year medical students. Journal of Surgical Research, 184(1), 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2013.06.009

Gates, M., Odom, T., & Sawicki, R. (2018). Experience and confidence of final year veterinary students in performing desexing surgeries. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 66(4), 210–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2018.1464977

Greenberg, A.L., Sullins, V.F., Donahue, T.R., Sundaram, V.M., Saldinger, P.F., Divino, C.M., Anton, N.E., Stefanidis, D., Reilly, L.M., Egan, R.J., Beals, C.K.J., Riall, T.S., Duh, Q.-Y., Mukhtar, R.A., Hirose, K., & Lebares, C.C. (2022). Emotional regulation in surgery: Fostering well-being, performance, and leadership. Journal of Surgery Research 277, 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2022.02.032

Greenfield, C., Johnson, A., & Schaeffer, D. (2004). Frequency of use of various procedures, skills, and areas of knowledge among veterinarians in private small animal exclusive or predominant practice and proficiency expected of new veterinary school graduates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 224(11), 1780–1787. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2004.224.1780

Hill, L., Smeak, D., & Lord, L. (2012). Frequency of use and proficiency in performance of surgical skills expected of entry-level veterinarians by general practitioners. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 240(11), 1345–1354. doi: https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.240.11.1345

Hunt, J.A., Gilley., R.S., Gilley, A., Thompson, R.R., Anderson, S.L. (2023) Simulating ovariohysterectomy: What type of practice promotes short- and long-term skills retention? Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. https://doi.org/10.3138/jvme-2022-0115

Keller, S., Tschan, F., Semmer, N., Timm-Holzer, E., Zimmermann, J., Candinas, D., Demartines, N., Hübner, M., & Beldi, G. (2019). "Disruptive behavior" in the operating room: A prospective observational study of triggers and effects of tense communication episodes in surgical teams. PLOS ONE, 14(12), e0226437. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226437

Langebæk, R., Eika, B., Jensen, A., Tanggaard, L., Toft, N., & Berendt, M. (2012a). Anxiety in veterinary surgical students: a quantitative study. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 39(4), 331–340. https://doi.org/10.3138/jvme.1111-111R1

Langebæk, R., Eika, B., Tanggaard, L., Jensen, A., & Berendt, M. (2012b). Emotions in veterinary surgical students: A qualitative study. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 39(4), 312–321. https://doi.org/10.3138/jvme.0611.068R1

Lebares, C.C., Coaston, T.N., Delucchi, K.L., Guvva, E.V., Shen, W.T., Staffaroni, A.M., Kramer, J.H., Epel, E.S., Hecht, F.M., Ascher, N.L., Harris, H.W., & Cole, S.W. (2021). Enhanced stress resilience training in surgeons: Iterative adaptation and biopsychosocial effects in 2 small randomized trials. Annals of Surgery, 273(3), 424–432. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004145

MacArthur, S.L., Johnson, M.D, Cole, J.C. (2021). Effect of a spay simulator on student competence and anxiety. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 48(1), 115–128. https://doi.org/10.3138/jvme.0818-089r3

Orri, M., Revah-Lévy, A., & Farges, O. (2015). Surgeons’ emotional experience of their everyday practice - A qualitative study. PLOS ONE, 10(11), e0143763. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143763

Reznick,R., & MacRae, H. (2006). Teaching surgical skills – changes in the wind. The New England Journal of Medicine, 355(25), 2964–2969. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra054785

Routly, J., Dobson, H., Taylor, I., McKernan, E., & Turner, R. (2002). Support needs of veterinary surgeons during the first few years of practice: perceptions of recent graduates and senior partners. Veterinary Record, 150(6), 167–171. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.150.6.167

Simons, M.C., Hunt, J.A., Anderson, S.L. (2022). What’s the evidence? A review of current instruction and assessment in veterinary surgical education. Veterinary Surgery, 51(5), 731–743. https://doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13819

von Bechtolsheim, F., Schmidt, S., Abel, S., Schneider, A., Wekenborg, M., Bodenstedt, S., Speidel, S., Weitz, J., Oehme, F., Distler, M. (2022). Does speed equal quality? Time pressure impairs minimally invasive surgical skills in a prospective crossover trial. International Journal of Surgery, 104, 106813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2022.106813



How to Cite

Rodríguez-Frausto, H. ., Rochín-Berumen, F., & Ruiz-Fernández, E. (2023). Emotion evaluations as an appreciation of trust generated during the learning process of veterinary surgery. Ciencia Y Agricultura, 20(1), 15498. https://doi.org/10.19053/01228420.v20.n1.2023.15498