Morphological changes of the calamus of growing remiges feathers in pigeons
Keywords:feather, feather growth, feather regeneration, morphogenesis of the feather
Feathers have been studied in processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis; however, only few histological studies in adult animals describe the maturation of the cellular components sequentially. Therefore, the objective of this work was to describe the histological characteristics, covering the cellular elements and their anatomical relationships. Pigeon feathers were withdrawn to induce regeneration, and samples were taken at different times: 8 (sprout time), 13, 18, 23, and 28 days. We prepared histological cuts using different staining techniques. We demonstrated the presence of a very marked ramogenic zone that tends to diminish from day 8 to 28. In the barb ridge, we observed the barb, barbule, and axial plate cells, with the marginal plate delimiting each barb ridge. The cellular characteristics varied according to the ridges region, showing in the marginal plate transitions from squamous to cuboidal and back to squamous cells; and, in the barbular plate, from cuboidal to columnar and then to fusiform cells. Obscure cells from the ramogenic zone were identified as cells derived from the dermal papilla based on their staining. In conclusion, we characterized the histology of the calamus and, for the first time, described the different growth stages sequentially.
(2) Alibardi L. Cell junctions during morphogenesis of feathers: general ultrastructure with emphasis on adherens junctions. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm). 2011; 92: 89-100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6395.2010.00454.x.
(3) Alibardi L. Ultraestructure of the feather follicle in relation to the formation of the rachis in pennaceous feathers. Anat Sci Int. 2010; 85: 79-91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12565-009-0060-z.
(4) Chang CH., Yu M., Wu P., Jiang TX., Yu HS., Widelitz RB., et al. Sculpting skin appendages out of epidermal layers via temporally and spatially regulated apoptotic events. J Invest Dermatol. 2004; 122: 1348-1355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.22611.x.
(5) Lin SJ., Wideliz RB., Yue Z., Li A., Wu X. Feather regeneration as a model for organogenesis. Develop Growth Differentiation. 2013; 55: 139-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/dgd.12024.
(6) Gade NE., Pratheesh MD., Nath A., Dubey PK., Amarpal G., Sharma T. Therapeutic potential of stem cell in veterinary practice. Vet World. 2012; 5(8): 499-507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2012.499-507.
(7) Yap KK. Modelling human development and disease: The role of animals, stem cells, and future perspectives. Australian Med Student J. 2012; 3(2): 8-10.
(8) Dawson A., Perrins CM., Sharp PJ., Wheeler D., Groves S. The involvement of prolactin in avian molt: the effects of gender and breeding success on the timing of molt in Mute swans (Cygnus olor). General Comparative Endocrinol. 2009; 161(2): 267-270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.01.016.
(9) Gienapp P., Merilä JP. Genetic and environmental effects on a condition-dependent trait: feather growth in Siberian jays. J. Evol Biol. 2010; 23: 715-723. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.01949.x.
(10) Prum RO., Dyck J. A hierarchical model of plumage: Morphology, development, and evolution. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol). 2003; 298B: 73-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.27.
(11) Alibardi L. Cell organization of barb ridges in regenerating feathers of the quail: implications of the elongation of barb ridges for the evolution and diversification of feathers. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm). 2007; 88: 101-117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6395.2007.00257.x.
(12) Alibardi L. Cytological aspects of the differentiation of barb cells during the formation of the ramus of feathers. Int J Morphol. 2007; 25(1): 73-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022007000100010.
(13) Alibardi L. Cell structure of barb ridges in down feathers and juvenile wing feathers of the developing chick embryo: Barb ridge modification in relation to feather evolution. Ann Anat. 2006; 88: 303-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2006.01.011.
(14) Estrada FE., Peralta ZL., Rivas MP. Manual de Técnicas Histológicas. A.G.T. 1982.
(15) Sawyer RH., Rogers L., Washington L., Glenn TC., Knapp LW. Evolutionary origin of the feather epidermis. Developmental Dynamics. 2005; 232: 256-267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.20291.
(16) Yue Z., Jiang TX., Widelitz RB., Chuong C. M. Wnt3a gradient converts radial to bilateral feather symmetry via topological arrangement of epithelia. PNAS. 2006; 103(4): 951-955. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506894103.
(17) Bragulla H., Hirschberg R. Horse hooves and bird feathers: Two model systems for studying the structure and development of highly adapted integumentary accessory organs the role of the dermo epidermal interface for the micro-architecture of complex epidermal structures. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol). 2003; 298B: 140-151. 61.
(18) Alibardi L. Wedge cells during regeneration of juvenile and adult feathers and their role in carving out the branching pattern of barbs. Ann Anat. 2007; 189: 234-242. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2006.11.008.
(19) Van CS., Van DBW. Morphological and biochemical aspects of apoptosis, oncosis and necrosis. Anat Histol Embryol. 2002; 31: 214-223. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0264.2002.00398.x.
How to Cite
All papers included in the Revista Ciencia y Agricultura are published under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International