In vitro effect of the hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of papaya seeds (Carica papaya) against Haemonchus contortus

Efecto in vitro de los extractos hidroalcohólico y etanólico de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya) en Haemonchus contortus

Main Article Content

María de los Ángeles Marroquín-Tun
Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita
María Eugenia López-Arellano
Raquel López-Arellano
Héctor Alejandro de la Cruz-Cruz
Rocío Silva-Mendoza
Jorge Alfredo Cuéllar-Ordaz


Among the main health problems for sheep production are gastrointestinal parasites, of which the most important nematode is Haemonchus contortus. Current control strategies focus on the effectiveness, along with the low impact on the ecosystem. The study of the integral control of parasites allows the investigation of alternatives with probable anthelmintic effect, such as the use of papaya (Carica papaya) seeds. This study aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of papaya seeds on eggs and larvae of H. contortus. The study was carried out with the equipment and facilities of Laboratory 3 of the Multidisciplinary Research Unit at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM. The extracts were prepared through maceration in solvent. A sheep was inoculated with 5000 L3 of H. contortus, a strain isolated and maintained in the facilities. Fecal samples were collected, and eggs were recovered for the hatch inhibition assay. The eggs and L3 were pretreated with hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extract of papaya seed (2.5 mg/ml), distilled water, ethanol 90 %, and levamisole (7.5 mg/ml). The abomasal explants technique was used to evaluate the effect of the extracts on L3 and its association to the abomasal mucosa. An ANOVA was performed for repeated samples using the Statgraphics program. The ethanolic extract of the papaya seed inhibited 92 % of hatching, and the hydroalcoholic extract 50 % (p <0.05). In the case of the explants, the ethanolic extract showed 10 % of the larvae not associated with the abomasal tissue, followed by the hydroalcoholic extract with 60 % of non-associated larvae (p<0.05). In conclusion, the ethanolic extract has an effect on eggs, while the hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the association to the abomasal tissue.



Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References (SEE)

(1) Hotez PJ., Brindley PJ., Bethony JM., King CH., Pearce EJ., Jacobson J. Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. J. of Clin. Inv. 2008; 118: 1311-1321. DOI:

(2) Busin V., Sargison ND. Preliminary observations on the value of using effective anthelmintic drugs to control nematode parasitism in lambs in the face of a high level of infective larval challenge. Small Rum. Res. 2014; 119: 172-175. DOI:

(3) Muñiz Lagunes A., González Garduño R., López Arellano ME., Ramírez Valverde R., Ruíz Flores A., et al. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, México. Trop. Anim Health Prod. 2015; 47(6): 1049-1054. DOI:

(4) Waller PJ. From discovery to development: current industry perspectives for the development of novel methods of helminth control in livestock. Vet Parasitol. 2006; 139: 1-14. DOI:

(5) Klimpel S., Abdel Ghaffar F., Al Rasheid KA., Aksu G., Fischer K., Strassen B., Mehlhorn H. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes. Parasitol Res. 2011; 108(4): 1047-1054. DOI:

(6) Knox M., Torres Acosta JFJ., Aguilar Caballero A. Exploiting the effect of dietary supplementation of small ruminants on resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes. Vet. Parasitol. 2006; 139: 385-393. DOI:

(7) Martínez Ortiz C., Vargas Magaña JJ., Aguilar Caballero AJ., Sandoval Castro CA., Cob Galera L., May Martínez M., et al. Combining the effects of supplementary feeding and copper oxide needles improves the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in browsing goats. Vet. Parasitol. 2007; 146: 66-76. DOI:

(8) Torres Acosta JFJ., Hoste H. Alternative or improved methods to limit gastro-intestinal parasitism in grazing sheep and goats. Small Rum. Res. 2008; 77: 159-173. DOI:

(9) Rocha RA., Bresciani KDS., Barros TFM., Fernandes LH., Silva MB., Amarante AFT. Sheep and cattle grazing alternately: nematode parasitism and pasture decontamination. Small Rum. Res. 2008; 75: 135-143. DOI:

(10) Omayma M., Abou S., Maha M., Olfat A., Nardden Zakka, B. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope. Parasitol Res. 2014; 113: 2827- 2836. DOI:

(11) Molento MB. Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices. Vet. Parasitol. 2009; 163: 229-234.

(12) Bar Nun N., Mayer AM. Cucurbitacins protect cucumber tissue against infection by Botrytis cinerea. Phytochemistry. 1990; 29:787-791. DOI:

(13) Bautista O., Ovalle C. Evaluación de la eficacia de un preparado acuoso de semilla de papaya (Carica papaya) contra Haemonchus contortus en ovinos con infección artificial. Tesis de licenciatura. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán. 2012.

(14) Valdez Ramírez L., Cuéllar Ordaz J. Aislamiento de una cepa de Haemonchus contortus de origen ovino. Tesis que para obtener el título de Médico Veterinario Zootecnista. Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán- UNAM. 2009.

(15) Van Wyk J., Mayhew E. Morphological identification of parasitic nematode infective larvae of small ruminants and cattle: A practical lab guide. J. Vet. Res. 2013; 80: 1-14. DOI:

(16) Coles G., Borgsteede F., Geerts S., Klei T., Taylor M., Waller P. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet. parasitol. 1992; 44: 35-44. DOI:

(17) Carvalho C., Chagas A., Cotinguiba F., Furlan M., Brito L., Chaves C., et al. The anthelmintic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides venezuelensis. Vet. Parasitol. 2012; 183: 260-268. DOI:

(18) Jackson F., Greer A., Huntley J., McAnulty R., Bartley D., Stanley A., et al. Studies using Teladorsagia circumcincta in an in vitro direct challenge method using abomasal tissue explants. Vet. Parasitol. 2004; 124: 73-89. DOI:

(19) Batatinha M., Santos M., Botura M., Almeida G., Domingues J., Almeida M. Efeitos in vitro dos extratos de folhas de Musa cavendishii Linn e de sementes de Carica papaya Linn sobre culturas de larvas de nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos. Rev. Bras. PL. Med. Botucatu. 2004; 7(1): 11-15.

(20) Kermanshai R., McCarry BE., Rosenfeld J. Benzylisothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts. Phytochemistry. 2001; 57: 427-435. DOI:

(21) Kumar D., Mishra S., Tripathi H. Mechanism of anthelmintic action of benzylisothiocyanate. Fitoterapia. 1991; 65(5): 403-410.

(22) Buttle D., Behnke J., Bartley Y., Elsheikha H., Bartley D., Garnett M. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Parasites and vectors. 2001; 4-36.

(23) Reyna T. Características climático-frutícolas en Cuautitlán Estado de México. Invest. Geog. 1977; 8: 55-66.

Citado por: