Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

In vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Eryngium foetidum L. and Clinopodium brownei (Sw.) Kuntze

Eryngium foetidum L. (left). Photo: B.E. Jaramillo-Colorado Clinopodium brownie (Sw.) Kuntze (right). Photo: M. Ortiz Ruíz


In the present work, the volatile chemical composition of the essential oils was determinated from Colombian Eryngium foetidum L. and Clinopodium brownei (Sw.) Kuntze, extracted by hydrodistillation, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The essential oil of E. foetidum leaves is composed mostly of aliphatic aldehydes, mainly 2-dodecenal (43.0%), while in the essential oil of the aerial parts of C. brownei were menthone (54.3%), pulegone (17.7%), and neomenthol (16.1%). The susceptibility of the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) to both essential oils was tested with agar diffusion assays. It was found that E. foetidum essential oil inhibits the growth of S. aureus (90% at 150 µg mL-1). Broth microdilution tests determined that the MIC and MBC of the E. foetidum essential oil against S. aureus were 105 and 150 μg mL-1, respectively. 2-dodecenal had strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus with MIC and MBC of 105 μg mL-1 (98%). Binary combinations of 2-dodecenal and S-limonene or 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde had an indifferent effect in checkerboard tests, so it could be stated that the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Eryngium foetidum is mainly due to the action of the 2-dodecenal.


Antimicrobial activity, Staphylococcus aureus, Essential oil, Hydrodistillation, Bioprospecting



  • Adams, R.P. 2017. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4th ed. Allured Publishing Corporation. Carol Stream, IL.
  • Álvarez-Martínez, F.J., E. Barrajón-Catalán, M. Herranz-López, and V. Micol. 2021. Antibacterial plant compounds, extracts and essential oils: an updated review on their effects and putative mechanisms of action. Phytomedicine 90, 153626. Doi:
  • Andrade, J.M., H.L. Mosquera, and C. Armijos. 2017. Ethnobotany of indigenous Saraguros: medicinal plants used by community healers “Hampiyachakkuna” in the San Lucas Parish, Southern Ecuador. BioMed Res. Int. 2017, 9343724. Doi:
  • Armijos, C., J. Ramírez, M. Salinas, G. Vidari, and A.I. Suárez. 2021. Pharmacology and phytochemistry of Ecuadorian medicinal plants: an update and perspectives. Pharmaceuticals 14(11), 1145. Doi:
  • Banout, J., J. Havlik, M. Kulik, P. Kloucek, B. Lojka, and I. Valterova. 2010. Effect of solar drying on the composition of essential oil of Sacha culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.) grown in the Peruvian Amazon. J. Food Process Eng. 33(1), 83-103. Doi:
  • Baptista-Silva, S., S. Borges, O.L. Ramos, M. Pintado, and B. Sarmento. 2020. The progress of essential oils as potential therapeutic agents: a review. J. Essent. Oil Res. 32(4), 279-295. Doi:
  • Ben Akacha, B., M. Michalak, I.G. Mekinić, M. Kačániová, M. Chaari, F. Brini, R. Ben Saad, W. Mnif, S. Garzoli, and A. Ben Hsouna. 2024. Mixture design of α-pinene, α-terpineol, and 1,8-cineole: a multiobjective response followed by chemometric approaches to optimize the antibacterial effect against various bacteria and antioxidant activity. Food Sci. Nutr. 12(1), 574-589. Doi:
  • Calo, J.R., P.G. Crandall, C.A. O’Bryan, and S.C. Ricke. 2015. Essential oils as antimicrobials in food systems – A review. Food Control 54, 111-119. Doi:
  • Cardozo, E., M. Rubio, L.B. Rojas, and A. Usubillaga. 2004. Composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Eryngium foetidum L. from the Venezuelan Andes. J. Essent. Oil Res. 16(1), 33-34. Doi:
  • Chandrika, R., K.J.T. Saraswathi, and G.R. Mallavarapu. 2015. Constituents of the essential oils of the leaf and root of Eryngium foetidum L. from two locations in India. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 18(2), 349-358. Doi: https://10.1080/0972060X.2014.960277
  • Chouhan, S., K. Sharma, and S. Guleria. 2017. Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils—present status and future perspectives. Medicines 4(3), 58. Doi:
  • CLSI, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2020. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 30th ed. CLSI supplement M100. Wayne, PA.
  • Guimarães, A.C., L.M. Meireles, M.F. Lemos, M.C.C. Guimarães, D.C. Endringer, M. Fronza, and R. Scherer. 2019. Antibacterial activity of terpenes and terpenoids present in essential oils. Molecules 24(13), 2417. Doi:
  • Gutiérrez-Larraínzar, M., J. Rúa, I. Caro, C. de Castro, D. de Arraiga, M.R. García-Armesto, and P. del Valle. 2012. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of natural phenolic compounds against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Food Control 26(2), 555-563. Doi:
  • Han, Y., W. Chen, and Z. Sun. 2021. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of limonene against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Food Saf. 41(5), e12918. Doi:
  • Herrera-Feijoo, R.J., L. Morocho, D. Vinueza, R. Lopez-Tobar, and C. Chicaiza-Ortiz. 2022. Use of medicinal plants according to the ancestral knowledge of the indigenous people of the Yacuambi Canton, Zamora Chinchipe-Ecuador. Green World J. 6(2), 63. doi:
  • Jaramillo, B.E., E. Duarte, and I. Martelo. 2011. Composición química volátil del aceite esencial de Eryngium foetidum L. colombiano y determinación de su actividad antioxidante. Rev. Cuban Plant. Med. 16(2), 52-63.
  • Jaramillo, B.E., E. Stashenko, and J.R. Martínez. 2010. Composición química volátil de Satureja brownei (Sw.) Briq. colombiana y determinación de su actividad antioxidante. Rev. Cubana Plant. Med. 15(1), 52-63.
  • Jaramillo-Colorado, B.E., N. Pino-Benitez, and A. González-Coloma. 2019. Volatile composition and biocidal (antifeedant and phytotoxic) activity of the essential oils of four Piperaceae species from Choco-Colombia. Ind. Crops Prod. 138, 111463. Doi:
  • Kubo, I., K.-I. Fujita, A. Kubo, K.-I. Nihei, and T. Ogura. 2004. Antibacterial activity of coriander volatile compounds against Salmonella choleraesuis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 3329-3332. Doi:
  • Leclercq, P.A., N.X. Duñg, V.N. Lô and N. Ván Toanh. 1992. Composition of the essential oil of Eryngium foetidum L. from Vietnam. J. Essent. Oil Res. 4(4), 423-424. Doi:
  • Martins, A.P., L.R. Salgueiro, A.P. Cunha, R. Vila, S. Cañigueral, F. Tomi, and J. Casanova. 2003. Essential oil composition of Eryngium foetidum from S. Tomé e Príncipe. J. Essent. Oil Res. 15(2), 93-95. Doi:
  • Matailo, A., N. Bec, J. Calva, J. Ramírez, J.M. Andrade, C. Larroque, G. Vidari, and C. Armijos. 2019. Selective BuChE inhibitory activity, chemical composition, and enantiomer content of the volatile oil from the Ecuadorian plant Clinopodium brownei. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 29(6), 749-754. Doi:
  • Nazzaro, F., F. Fratianni, L. De Martino, R. Coppola, and V. De Feo. 2013. Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria. Pharmaceuticals 6(12), 1451-1474. Doi:
  • Ngang, J.J.E., M.A. Nyegue, F.C. Ndoye, A.D.T. Kamgain, S.L.S. Kamdem, R. Lanciotti, F. Gardini, and F.X. Etoa. 2014. Characterization of Mexican coriander (Eryngium foetidum) essential oil and its inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and during mild thermal pasteurization of pineapple juice. J. Food Prot. 77(3), 435-443. Doi:
  • Noriega, P., L. Calderón, A. Ojeda, and E. Paredes. 2023. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant bioautography activity of essential oil from leaves of Amazon plant Clinopodium brownei (Sw.). Molecules 28(4), 1741. Doi:
  • Orlanda, J.F.F. and A.R. Nascimento. 2015. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) volatile oils, from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. S. Afr. J. Bot. 99, 103-106. Doi:
  • Pabón, L., J. Granados, W.J. Velasco, M.F. Rodríguez, and P. Hernández-Rodríguez. 2023. Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de plantas frente a Staphylococcus aislados de pacientes con conjuntivitis bacteriana. Rev. Cienc. Salud 21(1), 1-14. Doi:
  • Pascual-Mendoza, S., A. Saynes-Vásquez, and A. Pérez-Herrera. 2022. Traditional knowledge of edible plants in an indigenous community in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico. Plant Biosyst. 156(2), 515-527. Doi.
  • Paw, M., R. Gogoi, N. Sarma, S. Saikia, S.K. Chanda, H. Lekhak, and M. Lal. 2022. Anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic study of leaf essential oil of Eryngium foetidum L. along with the chemical profiling collected from North East India. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 25(6), 1229-1241. Doi:
  • Pino, J.A., M. Estarrón, and V. Fuentes. 1997a. Essential oil of Satureja brownei (Sw.) Briq. grown in Cuba. J. Essent. Oil Res. 9(5), 595-596. Doi:
  • Pino, J.A., A. Rosado, and V. Fuentes. 1997b. Composition of the leaf oil of Eryngium foetidum L. from Cuba. J. Essent. Oil Res. 9(4), 467-468. Doi:
  • Rajput, S.B., R.B. Shinde, M.M. Routh, and S.M. Karuppayil. 2013. Anti-Candida properties of asaronaldehyde of Acorus gramineus rhizome and three structural isomers. Chin. Med. 8, 18. Doi:
  • Rodrigues, T.L.M., M.E.P. Silva, E.S.C. Gurgel, M.S. Oliveira, and F.C.A. Lucas. 2022. Eryngium foetidum L. (Apiaceae): a literature review of traditional uses, chemical composition, and pharmacological activities. J. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2022, 2896895. Doi:
  • Rojas, L.B. and A. Usubillaga. 2000. Composition of the essential oil of Satureja brownei (SW.) Briq. from Venezuela. Flavour Fragr. J. 15(1), 21-22. Doi:;2-G
  • Serwecinska, L. 2020. Antimicrobials and antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a risk to the environment and to public health. Water 12(12), 3313. Doi:
  • Thakuri, B.C., C.S. Chanotiya, R.C. Padalia, and C.S. Mathela. 2006. Leaf essential oil of Eryngium foetidum L. from far Western Nepal. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 9(3), 251-256. Doi:
  • Thi, N.D.T., T.H. Anh and L.N. Thach. 2008. The essential oil composition of Eryngium foetidum L. in South Vietnam extracted by hydrodistillation under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 11(2), 154-161. Doi:
  • Thomas, P.S., E.E. Essien, S.J. Ntuk, and M.I. Choudhary. 2017. Eryngium foetidum L. essential oils: chemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Medicines 4(2), 24. Doi:
  • Vandebroek, I. and D. Picking. 2020. Popular medicinal plants in Portland and Kingston, Jamaica. Springer Nature, Cham, Switzerland. Doi:
  • Wali, A.F., S. Jabnoun, M. Razmpoor, F. Najeeb, H. Shalabi, and I. Akbar. 2022. Account of some important edible medicinal plants and their socio-economic importance. pp. 325-367. In: Masoodi, M.H. and M.U. Rehman (eds.). Edible plants in health and diseases. Springer, Singapore. Doi:
  • Wong, K.C., M.C. Feng, T.W. Sam, and G.L. Tan. 1994. Composition of the leaf and root oils of Eryngium foetidum L. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6(4), 369-374. Doi:


Download data is not yet available.

Most read articles by the same author(s)