Main Article Content
In this study, we investigated the different responses of Spondias tuberosa (umbu) trees, which grow in two different ecological life zones in northeast Brazil: tropical wet and tropical arid ecosystems. We evaluated the responses of plants grown under humid and dry conditions by measuring photosynthesis, water status, fluorescence parameters, carbon isotopes and antioxidant systems activity. The highest net photosynthesis values were recorded simultaneously with the lowest VPD values. The highest internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration and the absence of typical changes in the fluorescence parameters suggested the onset of a nonstomatal limitation in photosynthesis. Our results showed that umbu plants can adjust their antioxidant activity during the dry season as a defensive strategy against the deleterious effects of water stress. This evidence is supported by the observed modifications in the pigment concentrations, increased accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, high levels of electrolyte leakage, increased antioxidant activity, and decreased carbon isotope discrimination in the umbu trees during the dry season. Supported by multivariate analysis of variance, significantly effect of interaction between categorical “months of collect and location” predicts a strong “dry season effect” on our dataset. Taken together, our data show that umbu trees grown in a wet tropical environment are more susceptible to drought compared with their tropical arid counterparts.
Agritempo Sistema de Monitoramento Agrometeorológico [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 June 29]. Available from: http://www.agritempo.gov.br/agroclima/sumario?uf=BA. In. ' (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento: São José dos Campos)
Araújo FP (2007) 'Umbuzeiro: valorize o que é seu.' (Embrapa Informação Tecnológica: Brasília).
Araújo FP, Santos CAF, Cavalcanti NB, Nascimento CES, Lima Filho JMP, Melo NF, Kiill LHP, Moreira FRB, Anjos JB (2009) Umbu. In 'Fruticultura tropical: espécies regionais e exóticas. (Eds JA Santos-Serejo, JLL Dantas, CV Sampaio and YS Coelho) pp. 458-473. (Embrapa Informação Tecnológica: Brasília).
Arcoverde GB, Rodrigues BM, Pompelli MF, Santos MG (2011) Water relations and some aspects of leaf metabolism of Jatropha curcas young plants under two water deficit levels and recovery. Braz J Plant Physiol 23, 123-130.
Cakmak I, Horst W (1991) Effect of aluminium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities in root tips of soybean (Glycine max). Physiol Plant 83, 463-68.
Campos MLO, Hsie BS, Granja JAA, Correia RM, Silva SRS, Almeida-Cortez JS, Pompelli MF (2012) Photosynthesis and antioxidant activity mechanisms in Jatropha curcas L. under salt stress. Braz J Plant Physiol 24, 55-67.
Carvalho MHC (2008) Drought stress and reactive oxygen species. Plant Signaling Behavior 3, 156-165.
Cattivelli L, Rizza F, Badeck FW, Mazzucotelli E, Mastrangelo EM, Francia E, Marè C, Tondelli A, Stanca AM (2008) Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: an integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crop Res 105, 1-14.
Cavalcanti NB, Resende GM (2006) The ocurrence of xylopodium in imbu native trees. Rev Caatinga 19, 287-293.
Cavalcanti NB, Resende GM, Brito LTL, Lima JB (1996) Extrativismo do imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda) como fonte alternativa de renda para pequenos produtores no semi-árido nordestino: um estudo de caso. Ciên Agrotec 20, 529-533.
Chaves ARM, Ten-Caten A, Pinheiro HA, Ribeiro A, DaMatta FM (2008) Seasonal changes in photoprotective mechanisms of leaves from shaded and unshaded field-grown coffee (Coffea arabica L.) trees. Trees 22, 351-361.
Chen L-M, Kao C-H (1999) Effect of excess copper on rice leaves: evidence for involvement of lipid peroxidation. Bot Bull Acad Sin 40, 283-287.
Chimenti CA, Pearson J, Hall AJ (2002) Osmotic adjustment and yield maintenance under drought in sunflower. Field Crop Res 75, 235-246.
Dombroski JLD, Praxedes SC, Freitas RMO, Pontes FM (2011) Water relations of Caatinga trees in the dry season. S Afr J Bot 77, 430-434.
Faraloni C, Cutino I, Petruccelli R, Leva AR, Lazzeri S, Torzillo G (2011) Chlorophyll fluorescence technique as a rapid tool for in vitro screening of olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) tolerant to drought stress. Environ Exp Bot 73, 49-56.
Flexas J, Medrano H (2002) Drought-inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non-stomatal limitations revisited. Ann Bot 89, 183–189.
Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990, 87-92.
Huseynova IM (2012) Photosynthetic characteristics and enzymatic antioxidant capacity of leaves from wheat cultivars exposed to drought. Biochim Biophys Acta 1817, 1516-1523.
Krieger-Liszkay A (2005) Singlet oxygen production in photosynthesis. J Exp Bot 56, 337-346.
Lawlor DW, Tezara W (2009) Causes of decreased photosynthetic rate and metabolic capacity in water-deficient leaf cells: a critical evaluation of mechanisms and integration of processes. Ann Bot 103, 561-579.
Lima Filho JMP (2001) Internal water relations of the umbu tree under semi-arid conditions. Rev Bras Frutic 23, 518-521.
Lima Filho JMP (2004) Gas exchange of the umbu tree under semi-arid conditions. Rev Bras Frutic 26, 206-208.
Lima Filho JMP (2007) Water status and gas exchange of umbu plants (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.) propagated by seeds and stem cuttings. Rev Bras Frutic 29, 355-358.
Lima Filho JMP, Silva CMMS (1988) Aspectos fisiológicos do umbuzeiro. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 10, 1091-1094.
Lins Neto EMF, Peroni N, Albuquerque UP (2010) Traditional knowledge and management of umbu (Spondias tuberosa, Anacardiaceae): an endemic species from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Econ Bot 64, 11-21.
Lins Neto EMF, Peroni N, Maranhão CMC, Maciel MIS, Albuquerque UP (2012) Analysis of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae)) in different landscape management regimes: A process of incipient domestication? Environ Monit Assess 184, 4489-4499.
Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence - a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51, 659-668.
Mendes KR, Marenco RA (2014) Is stomatal conductance of Central Amazonian saplings influenced by circadian rhythms under natural conditions? Theor Exp Plant Physiol 26, 115-125.
Nardini A, Õunapuu-Pikas E, Savi T (2014) When smaller is better: leaf hydraulic conductance and drought vulnerability correlate to leaf size and venation density across four Coffea arabica genotypes. Funct Plant Biol 41, 972-982.
Ni B-R, Pallardy SG (1992) Stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to net photosynthesis in seedlings of woody angiosperms. Plant Physiol 99, 1502-1508.
Ondrasek G (2014) Water Scarcity and Water Stress in Agriculture. In 'Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment. Vol. 1. (Eds P Ahmad and MR Wani) pp. 75-96. (Springer: New York).
Passos EEM, Prado C, Aragao WM (2009) The influence of vapor pressure deficit on leaf water relations of Cocos nucifera in Northeast Brazil. Exp Agr 45, 93-106.
Pompelli MF, Barata-Luís RM, Vitorino HS, Gonçalves ER, Rolim EV, Santos MG, Almeida-Cortez JS, Endres L (2010a) Photosynthesis, photoprotection and antioxidant activity of purging nut under drought deficit and recovery. Biomass Bioenerg 34, 1207-1215.
Pompelli MF, França SCS, Tigre RC, Oliveira MT, Sacilot M, Pereira ECG (2013) Spectrophotometric determinations of chloroplastidic pigments in acetone, ethanol and dimethylsulphoxide. Braz J Biosc 11, 52-58.
Pompelli MF, Martins SCV, Antunes WC, Chaves ARM, DaMatta FM (2010b) Photosynthesis and photoprotection in coffee leaves is affected by nitrogen and light availabilities in winter conditions. J Plant Physiol 167, 1052-1060.
Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol 193, 30-50.
Ramalho JC, Campos PS, Quartin VL, Silva MJ, Nunes MA (1999) High irradiance impairments on photosynthetic electron transport, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxigenase and N assimilation as a function of N availabiliby in Coffea arabica L. plants. J Plant Physiol 154, 319-326.
Rizhsky L, Liang H, Shuman J, Shulaev V, Davletova S, Mittler R (2004) When defense pathways collide: the response of Arabidopsis to a combination of drought and heat stress. Plant Physiol 134, 1683-1696.
Rizhsky L, Liang HJ, Mittler R (2002) The combined effect of drought stress and heat shock on gene expression in tobacco. Plant Physiol 130, 1143-1157.
Santos CM, Veríssimo V, Wanderley-Filho HCL, Ferreira VM, Cavalcante PGS, Rolim EV, Endres L (2013) Seasonal variations of photosynthesis, gas exchange, quantum efficiency of photosystem II and biochemical responses of Jatropha curcas L. grown in semi-humid and semi-arid areas subjeted to water stress. Ind Crops Prod 41, 203-213.
Schifman LA, Stella JC, Volk TA, Teece TA (2012) Carbon isotope variation in shrub willow (Salix spp.) ring-wood as an indicator of long-term water status, growth and survival. Biomass Bioenerg 36, 316-326.
Silva EC, Nogueira RJMC, Araújo FP, Melo NF, Azevedo Neto AD (2008) Physiological responses to salt stress in young umbu plants. Environ Exp Bot 63, 147-157.
Silva EN, Ferreira-Silva SL, Fontenele AV, Ribeiro RV, Viégas RA, Silveira JAG (2010) Photosynthetic changes and protective mechanisms against oxidative damage subjected to isolated and combined drought and heat stresses in Jatropha curcas plants. J Plant Physiol 167, 1157-1164.
Silva PEM, Cavatte PC, Morais LE, Medina EF, DaMatta FM (2013) The functional divergence of biomass partitioning, carbon gain and water use in Coffea canephora in response to the water supply: implications for breeding aimed at improving drought tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 87, 49-57.
Singh SK, Reddy KR (2011) Regulation of photosynthesis, fluorescence, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) under drought. J Photoch Photobio B 105, 40-50.
Smirnoff N (1995) Antioxidant systems and plant response to the environment. In 'Environment and plant metabolism: flexibility and acclimation. (Ed. N Smirnoff) pp. 217-243. (Bios Scientific: Oxford).
Stitt M (1991) Rising CO2 levels and their potential significance for carbon flow in photosynthetic cells. Plant Cell Environ 14, 741-762.
Takahashi S, Badger MR (2011) Photoprotection in plants: a new light on photosystem II damage. Trends Plant Sci 16, 53-60.
Tanajura CAS, Genz F, Araújo HA (2010) Mudanças climáticas e recursos hídricos na Bahia: validação da simulação do clima presente no Hadrm3p e comparação com os cenários A2 e B2 para 2070-2100. Rev Bras Meteorol 25, 345-358.
Valladares F, Pearcy RW (1997) Interactions between water stress, sunshade acclimation, heat tolerance and photoinhibition in the sclerophyll Heteromeles arbutifolia. Plant Cell Environ 20, 25-36.