Validation of black spot [(Pseudocercospora purpurea (Cooke) Deighton] management strategies in avocado crops in northern Tolima (Colombia)

Main Article Content


Eleonora Rodríguez-Polanco
Julian Alberto Reina-Noreña
Pablo Julian Tamayo-Molano
Luz Astrid Rodríguez-Polanco
Edgar Herney Varón-Devia


Leaf spot or black spot (BS) in avocado, caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora purpurea (Cooke) Deighton, is one of the main sanitary limitations for the production of avocado, particularly for the Antillean cultivars (Lorena, Choquette, Santana, and Semil 44) in the northern region of the department of Tolima, Colombia. During 2014-2017, different experiments were carried out in the field, aiming to determine the period of higher fruit susceptibility, the effect of pruning on inoculum reduction, and chemical molecules with a high degree of control, adjusting their chronology and frequency of application. The results allow the technical, economic, and environmental implementation and validation of a chemical strategy for management of this disease. The management strategy carried out by Agrosavia reported a 10% lower incidence of BS in fruits, compared to the one carried out by producers, and a 23.75% return, due to the increase in high quality fruits. In the latter, DMI fungicides (demethylation inhibitors), even without resistance reports, and fungicides with a mixture of two active ingredients (DMI and QoI) in interspersed application and sometimes in conjunction with CuOCl during periods of higher susceptibility to BS were used, aiming to reduce the resistance induction risk in P. purpurea.


Article Details


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

The copyright of the articles and illustrations are the property of the Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas. The editors authorize the use of the contents under the Creative Commons license Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). The correct citation of the content must explicitly register the name of the journal, name (s) of the author (s), year, title of the article, volume, number, page of the article and DOI. Written permission is required from publishers to publish more than a short summary of the text or figures.


Berger, R. 1973. Disease progress of Cercospora apii resistant to benomyl. Plant Dis. Report. 57, 837-840.

Bernal, J., C. Díaz, C. Osorio, Á. Tamayo, W. Osorio, O. Córdoba, M. Londoño, T. Kondo, A. Carabalí, E. Varón, A. Caicedo, A. Sandoval, F. Forero, J. García, and M. Londoño. 2014. Actualización tecnológica y buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA) en el cultivo de aguacate. Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (CORPOICA), Medellín, Colombia.

Birla, K., V. Rivera-Varas, G.A. Secor, M.F.R. Khan, and M.D. Bolton. 2012. Characterization of cytochrome b from European field isolates of Cercospora beticola with quinone outside inhibitor resistance. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 134(3), 475-488. Doi:

Budakov, D., N. Nagl, V. Stojšin, F. Bagi, D. Danojević, O. Neher, and K. Taški-Ajduković. 2014. Sensitivity of Cercospora beticola isolates from Serbia to carbendazim and flutriafol. Crop Prot. 66, 120-126. Doi:

Clark, E., P. Backman, and R. Rodriguez-Kabana. 1974. Cercospora and Cercosporidium tolerance to benomyl and related fungicides in Alabama peanut fields. Phytopathol. 64, 1476-1477. Doi:

Crous, P. and U. Braun. 2003. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 1. Names published in Cercospora and Passalora. CBS Biodiversity Series. Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Dann, E., R. Ploetz, L. Coates, and K. Pegg. 2013. Foliar, fruit and soilborne diseases. pp. 380-422. In: Dann, E., R. Ploetz, L. Coates, and K. Pegg (eds.). The avocado: botany, production and uses. 2nd ed. CABI, Wallingford, UK. Doi:

Darvas, J. 1982. Etiology and control of some fruit diseases of avocado (Persea americana Mill.). PhD thesis. University of Pretoria. Westfalia Estate, South Africa.

Darvas, J, J. Kotzé, and F. Wehner. 1987. Pathogenicity of fungi causing pre- and postharvest diseases of avocado fruit. Phytophylactica, 19(4), 489-493.

Deighton, F. 1976. Studies on Cercospora and allied genera. VI. Pseudocercospora Speg., Pantospora Cif., and Cercoseptoria Petr. Mycol. Pap. 140, 1-168.

Duvenhage, J. 2002. Evaluation of new generation fungicides for control of Cercospora spot on avocado fruit. S. Afr. Avocado Grow. Assoc. Yearb. 25, 11-14.

EPPO Global Database. 2020. Pseudocercospora purpurea (CERCPU). In:; consulted: May, 2020.

Everett, K. and B. Siebert. 2018. Exotic plant disease threats to the New Zealand avocado industry and climatic suitability: A review. N. Z. Plant Prot. 71, 25-38. Doi:

Georgopoulos, S. and C. Dovas. 1973. A serious outbreak of strains of Cercospora beticola resistant to benzimidazole fungicides in Northern Greece. Plant Dis. Report 62, 205-208.

Gustafson, D. 1976. World avocado production. pp. 74-90. In: Avocado Society Yearbook. Miami, FL.

Kikuhara, K., H. Watanabe, and H. Takemoto. 2014. Occurrence of QoI-resistant field isolates of Pseudocercospora vitis, the causal agent of grapevine leaf blight, in Fukuoka Prefecture, and improvement of a sensitivity assay for QoI fungicides. Jpn. J. Phytopathol. 80(3), 162-170. Doi:

Littrell, R. 1974. Tolerance in Cercospora arachidicola to benomyl and related fungicides. Phytopathol. 64, 1377-1378. Doi:

Lonsdale, J. 1991. Control of preharvest fruit diseases of avocado. Part I: Efficacy of various Triazole fungicides against Cercospora spot and sooty blotch. S. Afr. Avocado Grow. Assoc. Yearb. 14, 61-62

Lonsdale, J. 1992. Evaluation of systemic fungicides as pre-harvest treatments of avocados. S. Afr. Avocado Grow. Assoc. Yearb. 15, 35-38.

Mejía, A. 1999. Agronomía del cultivo del aguacate en Colombia. pp. 231-249. In: Memorias Curso Nacional de Frutas Tropicales. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira, Colombia.

Osada-Velázquez, H.K. and G. Mora-Aguilera. 1997. DOSLOG v. 1.0. Un sistema logarítmico computarizado para la elaboración de escalas y diagramas de intensidad de enfermedad. Manual del usuario. Colegio de Postgraduados. Instituto de Fitosanidad, Texcoco, México.

Peterson, R. and K. Grice. 1992. Cercospora spot of avocado. In: Proceeding of the Australian Avocado Growers' Federation Conference. The Australian Avocado Growers´ Federation, Brisbane, Australia.

Pohronezny, K., G. Simone, and J. Kotzé. 1994. Pseudocercospora spot (blotch). pp. 79-80. In: Ploetz, R., G. Zentmyer, W. Nishijima, K. Rohrbach, and H. Ohr (eds.). Compendium of tropical fruit diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

Price, P., M. Purvis, G. Cai, G. Padgett, C. Robertson, R. Schneider, and S. Albu. 2015. Fungicide resistance in Cercospora kikuchii, a soybean pathogen. Plant Dis. 99(11), 1596-1603. Doi:

Reina-Noreña, J., M. Mayorga-Cobos, S. Caldas-Herrera, J. Rodríguez-Valenzuela, and E. Varón-Devia. 2015. El problema de la peca en cultivos de aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) del norte del Tolima, Colombia. Corpoica Cienc. Tecnol. Agropecu. 16(2), 265-278. Doi:

Sánchez, P. and M. Patricia. 2000. Fertilización y nutrición del aguacatero. pp. 103-113. In: Téliz, D. (eds.). El aguacate y su manejo integrado. Ed. Mundi-Prensa, Barcelona, Spain.

Tamayo, P. 2004. Enfermedades poscosecha del aguacate y la curuba. ASCOLFI Informa 30(5), 29-34.

Tamayo, P. 2008. Enfermedades y desórdenes abióticos. pp. 155-196. In: Bernal, J. and C. Díaz (eds.), Tecnología para el cultivo de aguacate. Corpoica, Rio Negro, Colombia.

Turu, T. 1969. Avocados south of the border. Calif. Avocado Soc. Yearb. 70, 31-37.

Vale, F.X.R., E.I. Fernandes Filho, J.R. Liberato, and L. Zambolim. 2001. Quant—A software to quantify plant disease severity. pp. 160. In: Proc. International Society of Plant Phatology: International Workshop on Plant Disease Epidemiology. Vol. 8. Ouro Preto, Brazil.

Vanderplank, J. 1960. Analysis of epidemics. pp. 229-289. In: Horsfall, J. and A. Dimond (eds.), Plant pathology. An advanced treatise. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Vermeulen, J., M. Krause, A. Nel, N. Hollings, and J. Greyling. 1992. A guide to the use of pesticides and fungicides in the Republic of South Africa. Directorate of Livestock Improvement and Agricultural Production Resources, Pretoria.

Willis, A. 2005. Alternative control of Cercospora spot on Fuerte - Progress report. S. Afr. Avocado Grow. Assoc. Yearb. 28, 45-49.

Willis, A. and J. Duvenhage. 2003. Progress report on evaluation of alternative fungicides for control of Cercospora spot. S. Afr. Avocado Grow.’ Assoc. Yearb. 26, 45-49.

Willis, A. and Z. Mavuso. 2007. Evaluation of alternative fungicides for control of Cercospora spot on ‘Fuerte’. p. 8. In: Proc. 6th World Avocado Congress. Viña del Mar, Chile.


Download data is not yet available.