El microbioma de la filosfera y su aplicación potencial en la horticultura. Una breve revisión

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Autores

Silvia E. Barrera http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6834-3585
Stalin-Wladimir Sarango-Flóres https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2000-7261
Sandra-Patricia Montenegro-Gómez https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0035-0089

Resumen

Los microorganismos son esenciales para la vida en la tierra. Ellos se encuentran colonizando diferentes ambientes y en diferentes condiciones de pH, temperatura, humedad, etc. En ecosistemas naturales y agrícolas, el ciclado de nutrientes y la protección de la planta, son funciones importantes desempeñadas por los microorganismos asociados a las especies vegetales. Sin embargo, los mecanismos para colonizar esos ambientes no son completamente entendidos. En esta corta revisión se describen las comunidades bacterianas asociadas a la filosfera, con un enfoque agrícola de sus aplicaciones potenciales en esta área, relacionadas con nutrición y control biológico. En el contexto de alimentos contaminados y pérdidas en la producción agrícola, han surgido graves problemas debido al ataque de patógenos. Por otra parte, es claro que el uso de microorganismos benéficos en la agricultura es considerado como alternativa para mejorar el crecimiento, la producción y la salud de la planta. En este sentido, bacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal y agentes de biocontrol, aislados de la filosfera de diferentes especies vegetales han sido menos explotados que los microorganismos de la rizosfera. No obstante, el tratamiento de enfermedades, reducción de la incidencia de patógenos y la fijación de nitrógeno, en sistemas naturales y agrícolas, son ejemplos exitosos. En el contexto de seguridad alimentaria, se espera entender mejor cómo la microbiota nativa de la filosfera ayuda a la planta a protegerse contra patógenos y a la adquisición de nutrientes, para demostrar su importancia en el área agrícola. Esto indica que, fuentes microbianas pueden ser usadas para reducir el uso de productos químicos y aplicarlas como una alternativa agronómica para mejorar la productividad de los agroecosistemas.

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