Inhibición de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en cultivos de nañe en el Caribe colombiano usando aceites esenciales de Curcuma longa y Zingiber officinale

Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in yam crops at the Colombian Caribbean using essential oils of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale

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Alexander Pérez Cordero
Leonardo Chamorro Anaya
Jorge Mercado Gomez

Resumen

Los aceites esenciales son compuestos orgánicos importantes en el sector farmacéutico debido a sus propiedades antimicrobianas, volviéndose una alternativa de solución para determinadas fitopatologías. En el presente estudio se evaluó in vitro la actividad inhibitoria de aceites esenciales de Curcuma longa y Zingiber officinale contra Colletotrichum sp. obtenidas a partir de cultivos de Dioscorea rotundata en Toluviejo (Sucre, Colombia). Concentraciones de 3,000; 5,000; 8,000 y 10,000 mg/L de extracciones de aceite (método de hidrodestilación asistida por microondas) fueron aplicados a cultivos in vitro del hongo. Además, se empleó un testigo absoluto y controles positivo y negativo. Los aceites fueron caracterizados por cromatografía de gases acoplado a espectrometría de masa. La actividad inhibitoria se realizó por medio de la prueba de siembra en superficie (porcentaje de índice de inhibición). Los mayores valores de índice antifúngico se observaron a 10,000 mg/L similar al obtenido con el control positivo por benomil. De la caracterización química de los aceites esenciales el metabolito secundario que se presentó con mayor rango fue el monoterpeno 3-Thujeno y el citral. Los aceites esenciales de C. longa y Z. officinale generaron actividad inhibitoria contra el crecimiento de Colletotrichum sp., y por lo tanto pueden ser empleados para reducir la antracnosis.

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