Catalizadores magnéticos basados en Óxidos de Hierro: Síntesis, Propiedades y Aplicaciones

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Autores

Angélica M. Escobar
Luis R. Pizzio
Gustavo P. Romanelli

Resumen

Esta revisión se centra en las propiedades magnéticas, estructura, síntesis y aplicación como catalizadores de las nanopartículas magnéticas de óxidos de hierro. En los últimos años son muchos los avances logrados respecto a su síntesis, control del tamaño y forma, donde se destacan métodos como la co-precipitación, microemulsión, síntesis hidrotermal y solvotermal, entre muchas otras. Pero debido a que las nanoparticulas de óxidos de hierro son fácilmente oxidables por el medio amiente y por medios ácidos, se ve la necesidad de recubrirlas o protegerlas con materiales no magnéticos que en muchos casos funcionan también como sustancias funcionalizadoras a las cuales se une la fase activa. Así, es amplio el abanico de posibilidades de sustancias y compuestos protectores, tales como óxidos inorgánicos, polímeros y metales, al igual las técnicas  para su funcionalización. Las nanopartículas magnéticas una vez funcionalizadas pueden usarse como bloques de construcción para la fabricación de una gran variedad de sistemas catalíticos, y en este trabajo se revisará brevemente algunos de estos sistemas y su aplicación en diferentes procesos como reacciones de Síntesis Orgánica, fotocatálisis y eliminación de metales y otras sustancias en aguas residuales, por citar algunos ejemplos. Finalmente, se delinearán algunas tendencias y perspectivas futuras en estas áreas de investigación.

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Referencias

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