Respuesta hiperespectral de plantas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.), inoculadas con Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali, para la detección del marchitamiento vascular

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Autores

Cristhian Giraldo-Betancourt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6917-4979
Edisson Andrés Velandia-Sánchez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4324-043X
Gerhard Fischer https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8101-0507
Sandra Gómez-Caro https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6670-0275
Luís Joel Martínez https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9010-9189

Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar en condiciones de invernadero la respuesta hiperespectral de las plantas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.), inoculadas con diferentes densidades de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali, agente causal del marchitamiento vascular que genera grandes pérdidas económicas para los agricultores. Se estableció un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron densidades de inóculo 0.0, 1.0×103 y 1.0×106 conidios/mL del patógeno. La inoculación se realizó por inmersión de raíces en la suspensión de conidios. Para la evaluación de la respuesta espectral, se usó un espectroradiómetro midiendo directamente las hojas de la planta. Para la detección no invasiva en el patosistema P. peruviana - F. oxysporum, con los valores de reflectancia se calcularon diferentes índices espectrales relacionados con el Red Edge y se correlacionaron con las variables de la enfermedad. Los tratamientos mostraron diferencias significativas en el espectro visible a partir de 14 días después de la inoculación con los mayores valores de reflectancia. El índice de clorofila en el Red Edge (ChRE), el índice de absorción de clorofila modificado (MCARI), el índice de relación simple (SR) y el índice de Zarco and Miller (ZM) mostraron correlaciones altamente significativas con el área bajo de la curva del progreso de la enfermedad (AUDPCL), el peso fresco de la parte aérea de la planta y el área foliar. El estudio mostró el potencial de las respuestas espectrales para la detección y el estudio del marchitamiento vascular por Fusarium en P. peruviana.

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