Microstructural evolution during austempering of a ASTM A-532 CLASS III type high chromium white cast iron undergoing abrasive wear

Main Article Content


Oscar Fabián Higuera-Cobos http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4836-5215
Jeison Bucurú-Vasco
Andrés Felipe Loaiza-Patiño
Mónica Johanna Monsalve-Arias http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9902-8518
Dairo Hernán Mesa-Grajales


This paper studies the influence of variables such as holding temperatures and times during austempering of High Chromium White Cast Iron (HCWCI), with the following chemical composition: Cr 25 %, C 3 %, Si 0.47 %, Mn 0.74 % and Mo 1.02 %. The aim of the austempering was to modify the percentage of retained austenite and its correlation to abrasive wear resistance under different conditions.Microhardness tests, SEM-EDS and XRD were performed to determine mechanical properties, chemical composition, and type of carbides and microstructures present, respectively. The tests complied with the ASTM G-65 standard. Results showed that the best performance against abrasion was achieved for austempering at 450 ºC with holding time of 6 hours.


Article Details


All articles included in the Revista Facultad de Ingeniería are published under the Creative Commons (BY) license.

Authors must complete, sign, and submit the Review and Publication Authorization Form of the manuscript provided by the Journal; this form should contain all the originality and copyright information of the manuscript.

The authors who publish in this Journal accept the following conditions:

a. The authors retain the copyright and transfer the right of the first publication to the journal, with the work registered under the Creative Commons attribution license, which allows third parties to use what is published as long as they mention the authorship of the work and the first publication in this Journal.

b. Authors can make other independent and additional contractual agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (eg, include it in an institutional repository or publish it in a book) provided they clearly indicate that the work It was first published in this Journal.

c. Authors are allowed and recommended to publish their work on the Internet (for example on institutional or personal pages) before and during the process.
review and publication, as it can lead to productive exchanges and a greater and faster dissemination of published work.

d. The Journal authorizes the total or partial reproduction of the content of the publication, as long as the source is cited, that is, the name of the Journal, name of the author (s), year, volume, publication number and pages of the article.

e. The ideas and statements issued by the authors are their responsibility and in no case bind the Journal.


M. Col, F. GülKoc, H. Öktem, and D. Kir, “The role of boron content in high alloy white cast iron (Ni-Hard 4) on microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance,” Wear, vol. 348-349, pp 158-165, Feb. 2016. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2015.12.007.

K. Kusumoto, K. Shimizu, X. yaer, Y. Zhang, Y. Ota, and J. Ito, “Abrasive wear characteristics of Fe-2C-5Cr-5Mo-5W-5Nb multicomponent white cast iron,” Wear, vol. 376-377, pp 22-29, Apr. 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.096.

K. D. Tozetti, E. Albertin, and C. Scandian, “Abrasive size and load effects on the wear of a 19.9 % chromium and 2.9 % carbon cast iron,” Wear, vol. 376-377, pp 46-53, Apr. 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.008.

V. Heino, M. Kallio, K. Valtonen, and V. T. Kuokkala, “The role of microstructure in high stress abrasion of white cast irons,” Wear, In press. Mayo 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.04.029.

American Society for Testing and Metals. Standard Specification for Abrasion Resistant Cast Irons: ASTM G-532,

J. P. Holman, Transferencia de calor, 8 Ed. McGraw Hill, 1998.

ASM Handbook, Vol. 1, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, 1993.

ASM Handbook, vol. 18, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, 1992.

American Society for Testing and Metals. Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus: ASTM G-65.

S. D. Carpenter, and D. Carpenter, “X-ray diffraction study of M7C3 carbide within a high chromium white iron,” Materials Letters, vol. 57 (28), pp. 4456-4459, Oct. 2003. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00342-2.

C. Fan, M. C. Chen, C.M. Chang, and W. Wu, “Microstructure change caused by (Cr, Fe)23C6 carbides in high chromium Fe–Cr–C hardfacing alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technology, vol. 201 (3-4), pp. 908-912, Oct. 2006. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.01.010.

Ö. N. Doğan, J. A. Hawk, and G. LairdII, “Solidification Structure and Abrasion Resistance of High Chromium White Irons,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A., vol. 28A, pp 1315-1328, Jun. 1997. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-997-0267-3.

A. E. Karantzalis, A. Lekatou, and E. Diavat, “Effect of Destabilization. Heat Treatments on the Microstructure of High-Chromium Cast Iron: A Microscopy Examination Approach,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., vol 18 (8), pp 1078-1085, Nov. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-009-9353-6.

S. K. Hann, and J. D.Gates, “A transformation toughening white cast iron,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 32 (5), pp. 1249-1259, Mar. 1997. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018544204267.

D. Li, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, Ch. Ye, X. Ren, Y. Yang, and Q. Yang, “Phase diagram calculation of high chromium cast irons and influence of its chemical composition,” Materials and Design., vol. 30 (2), pp. 340-345, Feb. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.061.

A. Bedolla-Jacuide, L. Arias, and B. Hernández, “Kinetics of Secondary Carbides Precipitation in a High-Chromium White Iron,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform, vol. 12 (4), pp. 371-382, Aug. 2003. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1361/105994903770342881.

A. E. Karantzalis, A. Lekatou, and H. Mavros, “Microstructural Modifications of As-Cast High-Chromium White Iron by Heat Treatment,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., vol. 18 (2), pp. 174-181, Mar. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-008-9285-6.

A. Akhbarizadeh, A. Shafyei, and M.A. Golozar, “Effects of cryogenic treatment on wear behavior of D6 tool steel,” Materials and Design, vol. 30 (8), pp. 3259-3264, Sep. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.11.016.

Y. P. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Parent, and H. Tian, “Performances of hybrid high-entropy high-Cr cast irons during sliding wear and air-jet solid-particle erosion,” Wear 301, pp. 390-397, 2013. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2012.12.045.

R. Blickensderfer, J.H. Tylczak. and G. Laird II, “Spalling of high chromium white cast in balls subjected to repetitive impact,” Wear of Metals, vol. 1, pp. 175-183, Jan. 1989.


Download data is not yet available.