Microstructural evolution during austempering of a ASTM A-532 CLASS III type high chromium white cast iron undergoing abrasive wear

Oscar Fabián Higuera-Cobos, Jeison Bucurú-Vasco, Andrés Felipe Loaiza-Patiño, Mónica Johanna Monsalve-Arias, Dairo Hernán Mesa-Grajales


This paper studies the influence of variables such as holding temperatures and times during austempering of High Chromium White Cast Iron (HCWCI), with the following chemical composition: Cr 25 %, C 3 %, Si 0.47 %, Mn 0.74 % and Mo 1.02 %. The aim of the austempering was to modify the percentage of retained austenite and its correlation to abrasive wear resistance under different conditions.Microhardness tests, SEM-EDS and XRD were performed to determine mechanical properties, chemical composition, and type of carbides and microstructures present, respectively. The tests complied with the ASTM G-65 standard. Results showed that the best performance against abrasion was achieved for austempering at 450 ºC with holding time of 6 hours.


Austempered; Retained austenite; Abrasive wear; High chromium white cast iron; Chromium carbides

Full Text:



M. Col, F. GülKoc, H. Öktem, and D. Kir, “The role of boron content in high alloy white cast iron (Ni-Hard 4) on microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance,” Wear, vol. 348-349, pp 158-165, Feb. 2016. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2015.12.007.

K. Kusumoto, K. Shimizu, X. yaer, Y. Zhang, Y. Ota, and J. Ito, “Abrasive wear characteristics of Fe-2C-5Cr-5Mo-5W-5Nb multicomponent white cast iron,” Wear, vol. 376-377, pp 22-29, Apr. 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.096.

K. D. Tozetti, E. Albertin, and C. Scandian, “Abrasive size and load effects on the wear of a 19.9 % chromium and 2.9 % carbon cast iron,” Wear, vol. 376-377, pp 46-53, Apr. 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.008.

V. Heino, M. Kallio, K. Valtonen, and V. T. Kuokkala, “The role of microstructure in high stress abrasion of white cast irons,” Wear, In press. Mayo 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.04.029.

American Society for Testing and Metals. Standard Specification for Abrasion Resistant Cast Irons: ASTM G-532,

J. P. Holman, Transferencia de calor, 8 Ed. McGraw Hill, 1998.

ASM Handbook, Vol. 1, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, 1993.

ASM Handbook, vol. 18, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, 1992.

American Society for Testing and Metals. Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel Apparatus: ASTM G-65.

S. D. Carpenter, and D. Carpenter, “X-ray diffraction study of M7C3 carbide within a high chromium white iron,” Materials Letters, vol. 57 (28), pp. 4456-4459, Oct. 2003. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00342-2.

C. Fan, M. C. Chen, C.M. Chang, and W. Wu, “Microstructure change caused by (Cr, Fe)23C6 carbides in high chromium Fe–Cr–C hardfacing alloys,” Surf. Coat. Technology, vol. 201 (3-4), pp. 908-912, Oct. 2006. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.01.010.

Ö. N. Doğan, J. A. Hawk, and G. LairdII, “Solidification Structure and Abrasion Resistance of High Chromium White Irons,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A., vol. 28A, pp 1315-1328, Jun. 1997. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-997-0267-3.

A. E. Karantzalis, A. Lekatou, and E. Diavat, “Effect of Destabilization. Heat Treatments on the Microstructure of High-Chromium Cast Iron: A Microscopy Examination Approach,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., vol 18 (8), pp 1078-1085, Nov. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-009-9353-6.

S. K. Hann, and J. D.Gates, “A transformation toughening white cast iron,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 32 (5), pp. 1249-1259, Mar. 1997. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018544204267.

D. Li, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, Ch. Ye, X. Ren, Y. Yang, and Q. Yang, “Phase diagram calculation of high chromium cast irons and influence of its chemical composition,” Materials and Design., vol. 30 (2), pp. 340-345, Feb. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.061.

A. Bedolla-Jacuide, L. Arias, and B. Hernández, “Kinetics of Secondary Carbides Precipitation in a High-Chromium White Iron,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform, vol. 12 (4), pp. 371-382, Aug. 2003. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1361/105994903770342881.

A. E. Karantzalis, A. Lekatou, and H. Mavros, “Microstructural Modifications of As-Cast High-Chromium White Iron by Heat Treatment,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., vol. 18 (2), pp. 174-181, Mar. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-008-9285-6.

A. Akhbarizadeh, A. Shafyei, and M.A. Golozar, “Effects of cryogenic treatment on wear behavior of D6 tool steel,” Materials and Design, vol. 30 (8), pp. 3259-3264, Sep. 2009. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.11.016.

Y. P. Wang, D. Y. Li, L. Parent, and H. Tian, “Performances of hybrid high-entropy high-Cr cast irons during sliding wear and air-jet solid-particle erosion,” Wear 301, pp. 390-397, 2013. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2012.12.045.

R. Blickensderfer, J.H. Tylczak. and G. Laird II, “Spalling of high chromium white cast in balls subjected to repetitive impact,” Wear of Metals, vol. 1, pp. 175-183, Jan. 1989.

Article Metrics

Abstract Views

Metrics Loading ...


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Revista Facultad de Ingeniería

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Revista Facultad de Ingeniería (Rev. Fac. Ing.) - ISSN: 0121-1129 - ISSN: 2357-5328 (Online)

Indexed and registered by: Emerging Sources Citation IndexSciELORedalycPublindex(Categoría C)REDIBDOAJDialnetSHERPA/RoMEOLatindex.



Licencia de Creative Commons

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

Sede Central Tunja–Boyacá–Colombia
Avenida Central del Norte 39-115
PBX: (57+8) 7405626
portalweb@uptc.edu.co Comentarios de este sitio
Horario de atención y servicio telefónico
8:00 a.m. a 12:00 m y 2:00 p.m a 6:00 p.m.

Atención al Ciudadano
Línea Gratuita: 01 8000 942024
Tel: (57+8) 7428263
Notificaciones Judiciales
Notificaciones de aviso

Institución de Educación Superior sujeta a inspección y vigilancia por el Ministerio de Educación Nacional
Sistema OJS - Metabiblioteca |