Efecto de bioestimulantes sobre la acumulación de materia seca e intercambio de gases en plantas de plátano (Musa AAB)

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Autores

Diana Mateus-Cagua https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7876-5343
Gustavo Rodríguez-Yzquierdo https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3709-8534

Resumen

Los bioestimulantes son productos que potencialmente pueden mejorar el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas al modificar procesos fisiológicos. En este estudio se evaluó la influencia de cuatro bioestimulantes en el crecimiento de plantas de plátano ‘Hartón’ e intercambio de gases en un periodo de la fase vegetativa. El experimento se desarrolló en el vivero de una finca productora de plátano en Fuente de Oro (Colombia), en un diseño de bloques completos al azar generalizados con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos correspondieron a los bioestimulantes Bactox WP®: Bacillus subtilis (Bs); Baliente®: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Ba); Tierras de diatomeas®: dióxido de silicio (Si); Re-Leaf®: ácido salicílico (As) y el control (agua). Todos los productos mostraron tener un efecto positivo en la acumulación de materia seca (MS) total (entre 58,4 y 21,9%) y en la actividad fotosintética (en un máximo de 110 y 24,3% en primera y segunda evaluación) respecto al control, mientras que en ritmo de emisión foliar y contenido de clorofila no se encontraron diferencias (P>0,05) entre tratamientos. Plantas tratadas con Bs tuvieron la mayor acumulación de MS al finalizar el estudio y una alta actividad fotosintética constante. Mientras que Bs, Ba y Si lograron estimular una mayor actividad fotosintética temprana. De acuerdo con los resultados el uso de estos bioestimulantes durante esta fase vegetativa tiene efecto sobre procesos fisiológicos que mejoran la acumulación de MS en plantas de plátano, lo que podría capacitarlo para enfrentar la etapa de trasplante y aumentar las reservas para ser utilizadas durante su establecimiento y desarrollo en campo.

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