Contenido principal del artículo
Sinusoidal current sources are fundamental components of electronic equipment used in bioimpedance
analysis and in electrical impedance tomography. Currently, these sources are mostly implemented as
analog electronic systems. The aim of this paper is to present a new approach to current sources design
based on discrete-time closed-loop control systems. The experimental results are obtained by implementing
the current source in a system of analog and digital programmable blocks, and using as a controller
a nonlinear difference equation proposed by the authors. This controller guarantees the convergence of
the amplitude of the current flowing through the load, towards a user-desired level. This new control law
does not require any parametric adjustment nor knowledge of the load . The developed device is able to
produce a sinusoidal current signal of a frequency ranging from 100 Hz to 120 kHz and currents from
500 μA to 2 mA. The amplitude error of the current signal remained below 1% for tests performed with
resistive-capacitive loads (Cole’s type loads). The output impedance is frequency dependent and ranges
from 410 kW to 966 kW. The total harmonic distortion is less than 5%. All the proposed system is embedded
in the mixed signal device PSOC 5LP, a shunt resistance being the only external component.
Detalles del artículo
 D. Bouchaala, Q. Shi, X. Chen, O. Kanoun, and N. Derbel, “Comparative study of voltage controlled current sources for biompedance measurements,” in International Multi-Conference on Systems, Sygnals Devices, pp. 1
– 6, March 2012.
 T. Qureshi, C. Chatwin, and W. Wang, “Bioimpedance excitation system: A comparison of voltage source and current source designs,” APCBEE Procedia, vol. 7, pp. 42 – 47, 2013.
 E. Mereu, V. Succa, R. Buffa, C. Sanna, R. M. Mereu, O. Catte, and E. Marini, “Total body and arm bioimpedance in patients with Alzheimer’s disease,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 102, pp. 145 – 148, 2018.
 J. Gómez-Ambrosi, I. González-Crespo, V. Catalán, A. Rodríguez, R. Moncada, V. Valentí, S. Romero, B. Ramííez, C. Silva, M. J. Gil, J. Salvador, A. Benito, I. Colina, and G. Frühbeck, “Clinical usefulness of 11 abdominal bioimpedance (viscan) in the determination of visceral fat and its application in the diagnosis and management of obesity and
its comorbidities,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 580 – 589, 2018.
 M. P. R. del Río, M. A. Camina-Martín, L. Moya-Gago, S. de-la Cruz-Marcos, V. Malafarina, and B. de Mateo-Silleras, “Vector bioimpedance detects situations of malnutrition not identified by the indicators commonly used in geriatric nutritional assessment: A pilot study,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 85, no. Supplement C, pp. 108 – 111, 2016.
 G. S. Sarode, S. C. Sarode, M. Kulkarni, S. Karmarkar, and S. Patil, “Role of bioimpedance in cancer detection: A brief review,” International Journal of Dental Science and Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15 – 21, 2016.
 P. Kenworthy, T. L. Grisbrook, M. Phillips, P. Gittings, F. M. Wood, W. Gibson, and D. W. Edgar, “Bioimpedance spectroscopy: A technique to monitor interventions for swelling in minor burns,” Burns, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1725 –
 P. Arpaia, U. Cesaro, and N. Moccaldi, “A bioimpedance meter to measure drug in transdermal delivery,” Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, pp. 1 – 8, 2018.
 R. Kusche, P. Klimach, and M. Ryschka, “A multichannel real-time bioimpedance measurement device for pulse wave analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, pp. 1 – 9, 2018. Early access.
 A. O. Bicen, L. L. West, L. Cesar, and O. T. Inan, “Toward non-invasive and automatic intravenous
infiltration detection: Evaluation of bioimpedance and skin strain in a pig model,” IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine, pp. 1–1, 2018.
 D. Bouchaala, O. Kanoun, and N. Derbel, “High accurate and wideband current excitation for bioimpedance health monitoring systems,” Measurement, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 339 – 348, 2016.
 A. S. Ross, G. J. Saulnier, J. C. Newell, and
D. Isaacson, “Current source design for electrical
impedance tomography,” Physiological
Measurement, vol. 24, no. 2, 2003.
 A. Tucker, R. Fox, and R. Sadleir, “Biocompatible,
high precision, wideband, improved
Howland current source with lead-lag compensation,”
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits
and Systems, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63 – 70,
 S. Rossi,M. Pessione, V. Radicioni, G. Baglione,
M. Vatteroni, P. Dario, and L. Della Torre,
“A low power bioimpedance module for wearable
systems,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical,
vol. 232, pp. 359 – 367, 2015.
 D. H. Sheingold, “Impedance & admittance
transformations using operational,” The lightning
empiricist, vol. 12, Jan. 1964.
 M. Rafiei-Naeini and H. McCann, “Lownoise
current excitation sub-system for medical
EIT,” Physiological Measurement, vol. 29,
no. 6, 2008.
 R. A. Stiz, P. Bertemes, A. Ramos, and V. C.
Vincence, “Wide band Howland bipolar current
source using AGC amplifier,” IEEE Latin
America Transactions, vol. 7, pp. 514 – 518,
 Y. Mohamadou, T. I. Oh, H. Wi, H. Sohal,
A. Farooq, E. J. Woo, and A. L. McEwan,
“Performance evaluation of wideband bioimpedance
spectroscopy using constant voltage
source and constant current source,” Measurement
Science and Technology, vol. 23,
no. 10, 2012.
 A. Mahnam, H. Yazdanian, and M. M. Samani,
“Comprehensive study of Howland circuit
with non-ideal components to design high
performance current pumps,” Measurement,
vol. 82, pp. 94 – 104, 2016.
 P. Bertemes Filho, Tissue characterisation
using an impedance spectrosopy probe. PhD
thesis, University of Sheffield, 2002.
 H. Yazdanian, M. Samani, and A. Mahanm,
“Characteristics of the Howland current source
for bioelectric impedance measurements systems,”
in 20th Iranian Conference on Biomedical
Engineering (ICBME), pp. 189 – 193, Dec
 P. J. Riu, J. Rosell, A. Lozano, and R. Pallàs-
Areny, “A broadband system for multifrequency
static imaging in electrical impedance
tomography,” Clinical Physics and Physiological
Measurement, vol. 13, no. A, 1992.
 R. Bragos, J. Rosell, and P. Riu, “A wide-band
AC-coupled current source for electrical impedance
tomography,” Physiological Measurement,
vol. 15, no. 2A, 1994.
 A. Al-Obaidi and M. Meribout, “A new enhanced
Howland voltage controlled current source
circuit for EIT applications,” in IEEE Conference
and Exhibition (GCC), pp. 327 – 330,
 H. Hong, A. Demosthenous, I. F. Triantis,
P. Langlois, and R. Bayford, “A high output
impedance cmos current driver for bioimpedance
measurements,” in 2010 Biomedical
Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS),
pp. 230 – 233, Nov 2010.
 L. Constantinou, I. F. Triantis, R. Bayford,
and A. Demosthenous, “High-power CMOS
current driver with accurate transconductance
for electrical impedance tomography,” IEEE
Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems,
vol. 8, pp. 575 – 583, Aug 2014.
 P. J. Langlois, N. Neshatvar, and A. Demosthenous,
“A sinusoidal current driver with
an extended frequency range and multifrequency
operation for bioimpedance applications,”
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits
and Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 401 – 411,
 R. Onet, R. Onet, A. Rusu, and S. Rodriguez,
“High-purity and wide-range signal generator
for bioimpedance spectroscopy,” IEEE Transactions
on Circuits and Systems II: Express
Briefs, pp. 1–1, 2018. Early access.
 J. Xu, M. Konijnenburg, H. Ha, R. van Wegberg,
S. Song, D. Blanco-Almazán, C. V. Hoof,
and N. V. Helleputte, “A 36 uw 1.1 mm2 reconfigurable
analog front-end for cardiovascular
and respiratory signals recording,” IEEE Transactions
on Biomedical Circuits and Systems,
pp. 1–10, 2018.
 Z. Hamed, H. Tenhunen, and G. Yang, “A programmable
low power current source for biopersonalized
health assistant,” in 37th Annual
International Conference of the IEEE Engineering
in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC),
pp. 2038 – 2042, Aug 2015.
 N. Li, H. Xu, W. Wang, and W. Zhang, “Highspeed
digital-controlled variable voltage source
with current monitor for EIT application,”
in 4th International Conference on Biomedical
Engineering and Informatics (BMEI),
pp. 1110 – 1113, Oct 2011.
 H. Hong, M. Rahal, A. Demosthenous, and
R. H. Bayford, “Comparison of a new integrated
current source with the modified Howland
circuit for EIT applications,” Physiological
Measurement, vol. 30, no. 10, 2009.
 A. A. Al-Ali, A. S. Elwakil, B. J.Maundy, and
T. J. Freeborn, “Extraction of phase information
from magnitude-only bio-impedance measurements
using a modified Kramers–Kronig
transform,” Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing,
 B. Maundy, A. Elwakil, and A. Allagui,
“Extracting the parameters of the singledispersion
Cole bioimpedance model using
a magnitude-only method,” Computers and
Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 119, pp. 153
– 157, 2015.
 T. J. Freeborn, B. Maundy, and A. S. Elwakil,
“Extracting the parameters of the doubledispersion
Cole bioimpedance model from
magnitude response measurements,” Medical
& Biological Engineering & Computing,
vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 749 – 758, 2014.
 J. Ramos, J. Ausín, G. Torelli, and J. Duque-
Carrillo, “A wireless bioimpedance device for
abdominal fatness monitoring,” Procedia Chemistry,
vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1259 – 1262, 2009.
Proceedings of the Eurosensors XXIII conference.
 T. J. Freeborn, A. S. Elwakil, and B. Maundy,
“Variability of cole-model bioimpedance parameters
using magnitude-only measurements
of apples from a two-electrode configuration,”
International Journal of Food Properties,
vol. 20, no. sup1, pp. S507–S519, 2017.