Estimación de la interacción genotipo-ambiente de caracteres de calidad interna del fruto en tomate tipo cereza

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Autores

Nelson Ceballos-Aguirre https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8463-3379
Franco Alirio Vallejo-Cabrera https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2739-0745
Yacenia Morillo-Coronado https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1974-3464

Resumen

Se evaluó la interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA) de diez accesiones de tomate cereza en nueve ambientes, los cuales estuvieron conformados por cuatro ambientes artificiales (0, 60 120 y 180 kg ha-1 de potasio) establecidos en ambientes naturales de las Granjas Montelindo (Palestina), Tesorito (Manizales) y CEUNP (Palmira) (Colombia). El material vegetal incluyó diez genotipos de tomate cherry obtenidos de los bancos de germoplasma del Instituto Agronómico de Campinas y del Centro de Recursos Genéticos de Tomate (TGRC). Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con cuatro bloques correspondientes al nivel de fertilización con potasio (0, 60, 120, 180 kg ha-1); particularmente, 0 kg ha-1 es el nivel reportado para el suelo. El tamaño efectivo de la unidad experimental fue de siete plantas; la parcela incluía las cinco plantas centrales. Se estableció una distancia de 1,5 m entre filas, 0,50 m entre plantas y 2 m entre bloques. Las variables evaluadas fueron: contenido de sólidos solubles (°Brix), contenido de vitamina C (mg/100 g peso fresco) y contenido de licopeno (µg g-1 peso fresco). El análisis de varianza (ANOVA) reveló diferencias significativas (P<0.01) entre genotipos de tomate, ambientes y su interacción para las tres características evaluadas. El análisis AMMI identificó ambientes semejantes y contrastantes y se discriminó los genotipos que más contribuyeron a la IGA. Los ambientes de 180 y 120 kg ha-1 de potasio fueron favorables para la expresión del contenido de vitamina C y Palmira para la variable contenido de licopeno. Los resultados encontrados podrían ser de gran utilidad para identificar localidades óptimas y genotipos élite que pueden ser utilizados como fuentes de variabilidad en programas de mejoramiento de la calidad del fruto de tomate.

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