Biodegradación de policloruro de vinilo por Mucor s.p. y Penicillium s.p. aislados de suelo

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Autores

María Luisa Pardo-Rodríguez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9484-2318
Patricia Joyce Pamela Zorro-Mateus https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9017-3914

Resumen

El PVC es uno de los plásticos más usados y de los que más residuos se producen. En los últimos años, se han reportado microorganismos capaces de degradarlo y que en su mayoría provienen de ambientes en los que se acumula. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la degradación del PVC sin plastificante, a partir de hongos aislados de una muestra de suelo contaminada con resina de PVC. Los hongos se aislaron y caracterizaron morfológicamente, obteniendo 30 aislamientos de los que se escogieron 8 para someterlos a pruebas preliminares, en un medio cuya única fuente de carbono era una película de PVC. Se hicieron curvas de crecimiento de los dos aislamientos con mejores resultados, y su identificación molecular mostró que correspondían a Penicillium sp. y Mucor sp.. Este último ganó biomasa a partir del PVC y en los dos casos, las películas mostraron cambios visibles, que fueron respaldados por espectros de infrarrojo. Aunque los resultados mostrados en este artículo son preliminares, abren la puerta a nuevas formas de degradación de los residuos de PVC, que son muy persistentes.

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