Presencia de elementos contaminantes como Cd, As, Pb, Se y Hg en carbones de la zona Cundiboyacense, Colombia

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Autores

Olga Patricia Gómez-Rojas
Mercedes Díaz-Lagos
Astrid Blandón-Montes
Segundo Agustín Martínez-Ovalle

Resumen

Carbones de la zona cundiboyacence fueron estudiados, con el fin de determinar la presencia y cuantificar los contenidos de elementos contaminantes como: cadmio (Cd), arsénico (As), plomo (Pb), selenio (Se) y mercurio (Hg), estos elementos son comparados con los índices de Clarke para carbones del mismo rango. Las muestras de carbón fueron tomadas de frentes de explotación activa y son analizadas mediante análisis próximos, petrográficos y por espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-MS). Los resultados revelan que las muestras analizadas presentan contenidos promedio de metales como Pb (15,5 mg•kg-1), Se (16,5 mg•kg-1), Cd (0,55 mg•kg-1) y As (16,05 mg•kg-1) por encima del promedio mundial para carbones del mismo rango y sus concentraciones son mayores a los carbones de la zona norte carbonífera de Colombia, el contenido de Hg es bajo (< 0,08 mg•kg-1). El contenido de estos elementos genera preocupación ambiental ya que de acuerdo a la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos (EPA), el límite máximo permitido para el Se, Pb y Cd es de 0.05 mg•kg-1(ppm). Se sugiere realizar estudios específicos, que permitan la recuperación previa y/o utilización.

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Referencias

Brownfield, M.E., Affolter, R.H., Cathcart, J.D., Johnson, S.Y., Brownfield, I.K., & Rice, C.A. (2005). Geologic setting and characterization of coals and the modes of occurrence of selected elements from the Franklin coal zone, Puget Group, John Henry No. 1 mine, King County, Washington, USA. International Journal Coal Geology, 63 (3–4), 247–275. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2005.03.021

Chen, Z., Liu, Y., Qin, P., Zhang, B., Lester, L., Chen, C., & Guo, Y. (2015). Environmental externality of coal use in China : Welfare effect and tax regulation. Applied Energy, 156, 16–31. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.06.066

Cutruneo, C. M. N. L., Oliveira, M. L. S., Ward, M. L. S., Hower, J. C., De Brum, I. A. S., Sampaio, C. H., Kautzmann, R. M., Taffarel, S. R., Teixeira, E. C., & Silva, L. F. O. (2014). A mineralogical and geochemical study of three Brazilian coal cleaning rejects : Demonstration of electron beam applications. International Journal of Coal Geology, 130, 33–52. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2014.05.009

Dai, S., Chou, C., Yue, M., Luo, K., & Ren, D. (2005). Mineralogy and geochemistry of a Late Permian coal in the Dafang Coalfield , Guizhou , China : influence from siliceous and iron-rich calcic hydrothermal fluids. International Journal Coal Geology, 61, 241–258. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.09.002

Dai, S., Ren, D., Tang, Y., Yue, M., & Hao, L. (2005). Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 61 (1–2), 119–137. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.07.003

Dai, S., Wang, X., Seredin, V. V., Hower, J. C., Ward, C. R., O’Keefe, J. M. K., Huang, W., Li, T., Li, X., Liu, H., Xue, W., & Zhao, L. (2012). Petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Ge-rich coal from the Wulantuga Ge ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: New data and genetic implications. International Journal of Coal Geology, 90–91, 72–99. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.10.012

Diehl, S. F., Goldhaber, M. B., Koenig, A. E., Lowers, H. A., & Ruppert, L. F. (2012). Distribution of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements in high pyrite Appalachian coals : Evidence for multiple episodes of pyrite formation. International Journal of Coal Geology, 94, 238–249. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2012.01.015

E.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]. (2015). Policy assessment for the review of the lead national ambient air quality standards. Recuperado de: https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/P100ITJD.TXT?ZyActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=2011+Thru+2015&Docs=&Query=&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&IntQFieldOp=0&ExtQFieldOp=0&XmlQuery=&File=D%3A%5Czyfiles%5CIndex%20Data%5C11thru15%5CTxt%5C00000010%5CP100ITJD.txt&User=ANONYMOUS&Password=anonymous&SortMethod=h%7C-&MaximumDocuments=1&FuzzyDegree=0&ImageQuality=r75g8/r75g8/x150y150g16/i425&Display=hpfr&DefSeekPage=x&SearchBack=ZyActionL&Back=ZyActionS&BackDesc=Results%20page&MaximumPages=1&ZyEntry=1&SeekPage=x&ZyPURL

Fu, B., Liu, G., Liu, Y., Cheng, S., Qi, C., & Sun, R. (2016). Coal quality characterization and its relationship with geological process of the Early Permian Huainan coal deposits, southern North China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 166, 33–44. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.04.002

Jongwana, L.T., & Crouch, A.M. (2012). Mercury speciation in South African coal. Fuel, 94, 234–239. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.09.033

Ketris, M. P., & Yudovich, Y. E. (2009). Estimations of clarkes for carbonaceous biolithes : World averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 78 (2), 135–148. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2009.01.002

Kostova, I., Vassileva, C., Dai, C., Hower, J.C., & Apostolova, D. (2013). Influence of surface area properties on mercury capture behaviour of coal fly ashes from some Bulgarian power plants. International Journal of Coal Geology, 116–117, 227–235. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2013.03.008

Lachas, H., Richaud, R., Herod, A.A., Dugwell, D.R. Kandiyoti, R., & Jarvis, K. E. (1999). Determination of 17 trace elements in coal and ash reference materials by ICP-MS applied to milligram sample sizes. Analyst, 124 (2), 177–184. doi: 10.1039/A807849A

Laus, R., Geremias, R., Vasconcelos, H. L., Laranjeira, M. C. M., & Fávere, V. T. (2007). Reduction of acidity and removal of metal ions from coal mining effluents using chitosan microspheres. Journal Hazardous Materials, 149 (2), 471–474. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.012

Li, J., Zhuang, X., & Querol, X. (2011). Trace element affinities in two high-Ge coals from China. Fuel, 90 (1), 240–247. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2010.08.011

Li, J., Zhuang, X., Querol, X., Font, O., Izquierdo, M. & Wang, M. (2014). New data on mineralogy and geochemistry of high-Ge coals in the Yimin coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 125, 10–21. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2014.01.006

Liu, G., Zheng, L., Zhang, Y., Qi, C., Chen, Y. & Peng, Z. (2007). Distribution and mode of occurrence of As, Hg and Se and Sulfur in coal Seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation,Yanzhou Coalfield, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 71 (2–3), 371–385. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2006.12.005

Liu, J., Yang, Z., Yan, X., Ji, D., Yang, Y., & Hu, L. (2015). Modes of occurrence of highly-elevated trace elements in superhigh-organic-sulfur coals. Fuel, 156, 190–197. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.034

Martínez-Bernal, M. S. (2013). Determinación de la productividad y competitividad de la pequeña minería del distrito minero del norte de Boyacá. Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, 3 (2), 72-86. doi: 10.19053/20278306.2168

Martínez-Ovalle, S., Reyes-Caballero, F., & González-Puin, L.X. (2013). Protección radiológica a trabajadores y público en instalaciones que operan radioisótopos industriales. Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, 3 (2), 120-124. doi: 10.19053/20278306.2166

Morales, W., & Carmona, I. (2007). Estudio de algunos elementos traza en carbones de la cuenca Cesar – Ranchería, Colombia. Boletín ciencias la tierra, 20, 75–87. Recuperado de http://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/rbct/article/view/728

Ohki, A., Taira, M., Hirakawa, S., Haraguchi, K., Kanechika, F., Nakajima, T., & Takanashi, H. (2014). Determination of mercury in various coals from different countries by heat-vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry: Influence of particle size distribution of coal. Microchemical Journal, 114, 119–124. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2013.12.012

Saha, D., Chakravarty, S., Shome, D., Basariya, M. R., Kumari, A., Kumar, A., Chatterjee, D., Adhikari, J. & Chatterjee, D. (2016). Distribution and affinity of trace elements in Samaleswari coal, Eastern India. Fuel, 181, 376–388. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.04.134

Seredin, V. V., & Dai, S. (2012). Coal deposits as potential alternative sources for lanthanides and yttrium. International Journal of Coal Geology, 94, 67–93. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.11.001

Seredin, V.V. (2012). From coal science to metal production and environmental protection : A new story of success. International Journal of Coal Geology, 90–91, 1–3. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.11.006

Seredin, V.V., & Finkelman, R.B. (2008). Metalliferous coals: A review of the main genetic and geochemical types. International Journal of Coal Geology, 76 (4), 253–289. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2008.07.016

Seredin, V.V., Dai, S., Sun, Y., & Chekryzhov, I.Y. (2013). Coal deposits as promising sources of rare metals for alternative power and energy-efficient technologies. Applied Geochemistry, 31, 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.01.009

Stanislav, C. G. V., Vassilev, V., & Eskenazy, G.M. (2001). Behaviour of elements and minerals during preparation and combustion of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria. Fuel Processing Technology, 72 (2), 103-129. doi:10.1016/S0378-3820(01)00186-2

Unidad de Planeación Minero-Energética [UPME]. (2005). La cadena del carbón. El carbón colombiano fuente de energía para el mundo. Recuperado de: http://www.upme.gov.co/Docs/Cadena_carbon.pdf

Yoshiie, Y., Taya, Y., Ichiyanagi, T., Ueki, Y, & Naruse, I. (2013). Emissions of particles and trace elements from coal gasification. Fuel, 108, 67–72. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.011

Yuepeng, P., Tian, S., Xingru, L., Sun, Y., Li, Y., Wentworth, G. R., & Wang, Y. (2015). Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions. Science of Total Environment, 537, 9–22. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.060

Zhang, J., Ren, D., Zhu, Y., & Chou. (2004). Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou , China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 57, 49–61. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2003.07.001
Brownfield, M.E., Affolter, R.H., Cathcart, J.D., Johnson, S.Y., Brownfield, I.K., & Rice, C.A. (2005). Geologic setting and characterization of coals and the modes of occurrence of selected elements from the Franklin coal zone, Puget Group, John Henry No. 1 mine, King County, Washington, USA. International Journal Coal Geology, 63 (3–4), 247–275. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2005.03.021

Chen, Z., Liu, Y., Qin, P., Zhang, B., Lester, L., Chen, C., & Guo, Y. (2015). Environmental externality of coal use in China : Welfare effect and tax regulation. Applied Energy, 156, 16–31. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.06.066

Cutruneo, C. M. N. L., Oliveira, M. L. S., Ward, M. L. S., Hower, J. C., De Brum, I. A. S., Sampaio, C. H., Kautzmann, R. M., Taffarel, S. R., Teixeira, E. C., & Silva, L. F. O. (2014). A mineralogical and geochemical study of three Brazilian coal cleaning rejects : Demonstration of electron beam applications. International Journal of Coal Geology, 130, 33–52. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2014.05.009

Dai, S., Chou, C., Yue, M., Luo, K., & Ren, D. (2005). Mineralogy and geochemistry of a Late Permian coal in the Dafang Coalfield , Guizhou , China : influence from siliceous and iron-rich calcic hydrothermal fluids. International Journal Coal Geology, 61, 241–258. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.09.002

Dai, S., Ren, D., Tang, Y., Yue, M., & Hao, L. (2005). Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 61 (1–2), 119–137. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2004.07.003

Dai, S., Wang, X., Seredin, V. V., Hower, J. C., Ward, C. R., O’Keefe, J. M. K., Huang, W., Li, T., Li, X., Liu, H., Xue, W., & Zhao, L. (2012). Petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Ge-rich coal from the Wulantuga Ge ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: New data and genetic implications. International Journal of Coal Geology, 90–91, 72–99. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.10.012

Diehl, S. F., Goldhaber, M. B., Koenig, A. E., Lowers, H. A., & Ruppert, L. F. (2012). Distribution of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements in high pyrite Appalachian coals : Evidence for multiple episodes of pyrite formation. International Journal of Coal Geology, 94, 238–249. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2012.01.015

E.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]. (2015). Policy assessment for the review of the lead national ambient air quality standards. Recuperado de: https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/P100ITJD.TXT?ZyActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=2011+Thru+2015&Docs=&Query=&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&IntQFieldOp=0&ExtQFieldOp=0&XmlQuery=&File=D%3A%5Czyfiles%5CIndex%20Data%5C11thru15%5CTxt%5C00000010%5CP100ITJD.txt&User=ANONYMOUS&Password=anonymous&SortMethod=h%7C-&MaximumDocuments=1&FuzzyDegree=0&ImageQuality=r75g8/r75g8/x150y150g16/i425&Display=hpfr&DefSeekPage=x&SearchBack=ZyActionL&Back=ZyActionS&BackDesc=Results%20page&MaximumPages=1&ZyEntry=1&SeekPage=x&ZyPURL

Fu, B., Liu, G., Liu, Y., Cheng, S., Qi, C., & Sun, R. (2016). Coal quality characterization and its relationship with geological process of the Early Permian Huainan coal deposits, southern North China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 166, 33–44. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.04.002

Jongwana, L.T., & Crouch, A.M. (2012). Mercury speciation in South African coal. Fuel, 94, 234–239. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.09.033

Ketris, M. P., & Yudovich, Y. E. (2009). Estimations of clarkes for carbonaceous biolithes : World averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 78 (2), 135–148. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2009.01.002

Kostova, I., Vassileva, C., Dai, C., Hower, J.C., & Apostolova, D. (2013). Influence of surface area properties on mercury capture behaviour of coal fly ashes from some Bulgarian power plants. International Journal of Coal Geology, 116–117, 227–235. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2013.03.008

Lachas, H., Richaud, R., Herod, A.A., Dugwell, D.R. Kandiyoti, R., & Jarvis, K. E. (1999). Determination of 17 trace elements in coal and ash reference materials by ICP-MS applied to milligram sample sizes. Analyst, 124 (2), 177–184. doi: 10.1039/A807849A

Laus, R., Geremias, R., Vasconcelos, H. L., Laranjeira, M. C. M., & Fávere, V. T. (2007). Reduction of acidity and removal of metal ions from coal mining effluents using chitosan microspheres. Journal Hazardous Materials, 149 (2), 471–474. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.012

Li, J., Zhuang, X., & Querol, X. (2011). Trace element affinities in two high-Ge coals from China. Fuel, 90 (1), 240–247. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2010.08.011

Li, J., Zhuang, X., Querol, X., Font, O., Izquierdo, M. & Wang, M. (2014). New data on mineralogy and geochemistry of high-Ge coals in the Yimin coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 125, 10–21. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2014.01.006

Liu, G., Zheng, L., Zhang, Y., Qi, C., Chen, Y. & Peng, Z. (2007). Distribution and mode of occurrence of As, Hg and Se and Sulfur in coal Seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation,Yanzhou Coalfield, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 71 (2–3), 371–385. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2006.12.005

Liu, J., Yang, Z., Yan, X., Ji, D., Yang, Y., & Hu, L. (2015). Modes of occurrence of highly-elevated trace elements in superhigh-organic-sulfur coals. Fuel, 156, 190–197. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.034

Martínez-Bernal, M. S. (2013). Determinación de la productividad y competitividad de la pequeña minería del distrito minero del norte de Boyacá. Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, 3 (2), 72-86. doi: 10.19053/20278306.2168

Martínez-Ovalle, S., Reyes-Caballero, F., & González-Puin, L.X. (2013). Protección radiológica a trabajadores y público en instalaciones que operan radioisótopos industriales. Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, 3 (2), 120-124. doi: 10.19053/20278306.2166

Morales, W., & Carmona, I. (2007). Estudio de algunos elementos traza en carbones de la cuenca Cesar – Ranchería, Colombia. Boletín ciencias la tierra, 20, 75–87. Recuperado de http://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/rbct/article/view/728

Ohki, A., Taira, M., Hirakawa, S., Haraguchi, K., Kanechika, F., Nakajima, T., & Takanashi, H. (2014). Determination of mercury in various coals from different countries by heat-vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry: Influence of particle size distribution of coal. Microchemical Journal, 114, 119–124. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2013.12.012

Saha, D., Chakravarty, S., Shome, D., Basariya, M. R., Kumari, A., Kumar, A., Chatterjee, D., Adhikari, J. & Chatterjee, D. (2016). Distribution and affinity of trace elements in Samaleswari coal, Eastern India. Fuel, 181, 376–388. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.04.134

Seredin, V. V., & Dai, S. (2012). Coal deposits as potential alternative sources for lanthanides and yttrium. International Journal of Coal Geology, 94, 67–93. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.11.001

Seredin, V.V. (2012). From coal science to metal production and environmental protection : A new story of success. International Journal of Coal Geology, 90–91, 1–3. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.11.006

Seredin, V.V., & Finkelman, R.B. (2008). Metalliferous coals: A review of the main genetic and geochemical types. International Journal of Coal Geology, 76 (4), 253–289. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2008.07.016

Seredin, V.V., Dai, S., Sun, Y., & Chekryzhov, I.Y. (2013). Coal deposits as promising sources of rare metals for alternative power and energy-efficient technologies. Applied Geochemistry, 31, 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.01.009

Stanislav, C. G. V., Vassilev, V., & Eskenazy, G.M. (2001). Behaviour of elements and minerals during preparation and combustion of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria. Fuel Processing Technology, 72 (2), 103-129. doi:10.1016/S0378-3820(01)00186-2

Unidad de Planeación Minero-Energética [UPME]. (2005). La cadena del carbón. El carbón colombiano fuente de energía para el mundo. Recuperado de: http://www.upme.gov.co/Docs/Cadena_carbon.pdf

Yoshiie, Y., Taya, Y., Ichiyanagi, T., Ueki, Y, & Naruse, I. (2013). Emissions of particles and trace elements from coal gasification. Fuel, 108, 67–72. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.011

Yuepeng, P., Tian, S., Xingru, L., Sun, Y., Li, Y., Wentworth, G. R., & Wang, Y. (2015). Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions. Science of Total Environment, 537, 9–22. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.060

Zhang, J., Ren, D., Zhu, Y., & Chou. (2004). Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou , China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 57, 49–61. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2003.07.001

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