Relaciones semilla-fruto en frutos carnosos: Rol de las hormonas. Una revisión

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Autores

Helber Enrique Balaguera-López https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3133-0355
Gerhard Fischer https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8101-0507
Stanislav Magnitskiy https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3715-1932

Resumen

Se sabe que la semilla tiene gran importancia biológica en la naturaleza y un determinante valor económico en la agricultura. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo retomar aspectos fisiológicos, bioquímicos y hormonales necesarios para el entendimiento de la relación semilla-fruto, destacando las principales implicaciones que tienen las semillas en el cuajado, crecimiento, desarrollo y abscisión de algunos frutos carnosos. Los frutos carnosos, con excepción de algunos partenocárpicos, requieren de la polinización y fecundación doble para la formación de las semillas. Esto conlleva a la estimulación de la síntesis de hormonas, tales como auxinas, giberelinas, citoquininas y brasinoesteroides. Estas hormonas se requieren para el desarrollo de la semilla y a su vez para el desarrollo del fruto, determinando aspectos como el cuajado, el tamaño final del fruto, la forma y las características de calidad en varios frutos. Este conocimiento es necesario para un correcto manejo del cultivo de especies que producen frutos carnosos.

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