Interpretación de los acentos ortográficos como indicadores de hiato

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Mary Elizabeth Beaton

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Este estudio examina las percepciones silábicas de los hablantes de herencia (HH), los aprendientes de segunda lengua y los hablantes monolingües en las palabras con secuencias vocálicas io, con el fin de entender las diferencias entre las intuiciones de los hablantes de herencia y las otros dos grupos. Los participantes completaron una actividad lectora y después, una actividad auditiva, en las que indicaron el número de sílabas que percibían en cada estímulo. Se examinaron tres patrones de acentuación léxica: acentuada (como río), o acentuada (como pidió) y sílabas atónicas (como folio). Los resultados muestran que los HH se comportan como los hablantes monolingües ante los estímulos auditivos, pero en la tarea lectora interpretan las tildes como indicadores de hiato. Es decir, ante las secuencias con una tilde, los HH separaron las dos vocales en dos sílabas distintas. Este comportamiento lleva a interpretaciones acertadas ante estímulos con acentuada, ya que la fonología del español exige que las vocales altas acentuadas se silabifiquen en hiato. Los HH también acertaron con las sílabas atónicas, las que carecen de una tilde. Sin embargo, estos mismos participantes tuvieron menos éxito con las palabras con o acentuada porque trataron estos estímulos como los estímulos con i acentuada. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones tanto para la teoría lingüística como para la pedagogía.

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