Español en contacto con coreano: nuevas apreciaciones en el cambio de idioma

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Autores

Silvia Kim

Resumen

 


El cambio de código (‘code-switching’, CS) se refiere a la mezcla de idiomas donde las personas que hablan dos o más idiomas cambian de una a otra. Los trabajos sobre CS español-inglés han identificado varias restricciones morfosintácticas que gobiernan cuando ocurren los cambios (por ejemplo, Timm, 1975; Pfaff, 1979; Poplack, 1980). Sin embargo, ¿qué sucede cuando los idiomas son tipológicamente diferentes? Este es el caso del CS español-coreano, que no se ha investigado sistemáticamente. Estos idiomas difieren en muchos aspectos,incluyendo (i) estructura de la cláusula/orden de las palabras, (ii) ausencia/presencia de artículos y (iii) morfología (coreano: aglutinante, español: fusional) (Kwon, 2012; Bosque et al., 1999). Para este estudio, entrevistamos a bilingües hispano-coreanos para obtener un corpus naturalista. Sorprendentemente, encontramos que muchas restricciones propuestas para el CS español-inglés no son válidas para el español-coreano. Hay tres maneras en que el CS español-coreano viola las restricciones: (i) en contextos que involucran la estructura de cláusulas, (ii) uso de sustantivos y (iii) en el nivel de morfemas. Crucialmente, las violaciones no son aleatorias: sugerimos que provienen de las diferencias tipológicas. Este trabajo destaca los beneficios empíricos y teóricos de incluir pares de idiomas tipológicamente diversos al investigar el CS.


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Detalles del artículo

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