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The pharmacy study program in Guadalajara: 1839-1919

Abstract

Objective: In this article we present an approach to the history of pharmacy education in Guadalajara, a study that covers from 1839, year in which this program was created, until 1919, year in which it was closed at the Escuela Comercial e Industrial para Señoritas. It shows how pharmacy education took shape, its relationship with medicine, the impact of political instability on its evolution, the incidence of pharmacists' work experiences and the emergence of new educational modalities.

 

Originality: This overview is not limited to the chronological exposition of the circumstances that framed the pharmacy studies. Its exposition is an important empirical basis but it is insufficient to explain to the readers how and why the knowledge, skills and abilities that make up this discipline were modified. In this regard, we believe that the annexation of new knowledge and its ordering have both external and internal motivations.

 

Method: This is a work of research and a critical analysis of a discipline that was gradually configured until it became a disciplinary corpus. The documentary work is based on historical, educational and institutional funds of the 19th century in Guadalajara. The content we offer here comes from the bibliographic review of studies on higher education in Jalisco as well as from the information compiled from documentary collections of the Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Guadalajara, The Archivo Histórico de Jalisco, and the Biblioteca pública del Estado de Jalisco.

 

Strategies/ Data Collection: we approach the teaching contents that make up the curricular basis of the discipline, the educational modalities of pharmacy and the work experiences of pharmacy teachers, for which we resorted to school and curricular documentary materials, to a bibliography guiding the prevailing problems, as well as to the professional and daily life of the actors: employees of the field, proto-pharmacists, newspaper material, history of the curriculum, etc., whose existence is reflected in the documentary and bibliographic record consulted.  

 

Conclusions: In this paper we have tried to show that pharmacy, as a fundamental body of knowledge and therapeutic practices, was a Cinderella during much of its history, because being a fundamental factor in the construction of health in the nineteenth century in Guadalajara, its recognition and status was unjustly denied, even when its medical implementation, contributed greatly to the practice of medicine in terms of minor and gradually major ailments.

Keywords

pharmacy, history of education, teaching, disciplines and work

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Author Biography

María Guadalupe García Alcaraz

Doctora en Educación, Profesora investigadora del Departamento de Estudios en Educación, miembro de la línea de investigación Historia social y cultural de la educación, maria.galcaraz@academicos.udg.mx

Luciano Oropeza Sandoval

Doctor en Educación, Profesor investigador del Departamento de Estudios en Educación, miembro de la línea de investigación Historia social y cultural de la educación,  luciano.oropeza@academicos.udg.mx


References

  1. Archivo Histórico de Jalisco, Fondo de Instrucción Pública.
  2. Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Guadalajara, Fondo Antecedentes Históricos de la Universidad de Guadalajara.
  3. Colección de Leyes y Decretos del estado de Jalisco. Guadalajara: Biblioteca Pública del Estado de Jalisco.
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  5. Oropeza Sandoval Luciano. “Las argucias de las mujeres para ingresar a los espacios públicos: las primeras estudiantes de farmacia en Guadalajara”, en Mujeres, niños y niñas en la historia. América Latina, siglos XIX y XX, coordinado por Laura Catalina Díaz Robles, Anayanci Fregoso Centeno y María Guadalupe García Alcaraz. Guadalajara, México: Universidad de Guadalajara, 2016, 289-311.
  6. Oropeza Sandoval Luciano. “La carrera de farmacia en la Escuela Comercial e Industrial para Señoritas de Guadalajara”. Memoria del XIV Congreso Nacional de Investigación Educativa/COMIE, San Luis Potosí, México, noviembre de 2017.
  7. Peregrina, Angélica. Ni Universidad ni Instituto: educación superior y política en Guadalajara (1867-1925). Zapopan, Jalisco: Universidad de Guadalajara/El Colegio de Jalisco, 2006.
  8. Viñao Fraga, Antonio. “La escuela y la escolaridad como objetos históricos. Facetas y problemas de la historia de la educación”, en Pensar críticamente la educación escolar. Perspectivas y controversias historiográficas, coordinado por Juan Mainer. Zaragoza, España: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2008, 83-118.
  9. Tyack, David y Larry Cuban. En busca de una utopía. Un siglo de reformas a las escuelas públicas. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2001.

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