Método “traducción gramatical”, un histórico error lingüístico de perspectiva: orígenes, dinámicas e inconsistencias

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Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal


El método Gramática-Traducción es considerado el enfoque más tradicionalista e inefectivo por antonomasia. Tal opinión suele justificarse mediante la creencia de que antes del método Audiolingüe no se lograba la destreza oral, la enseñanza constituía la memorización de reglas gramaticales y listas de vocabulario. No obstante, tal opinión se deriva de afirmaciones aún por corroborar, emitidas principalmente por autores mal informados y sin evidencia de base empírica que sustente sus prescripciones restrictivas, lo que conduce a malinterpretar el influjo de la traducción, negándole su valor de estrategia metacognitiva. Este artículo argumenta que la Gramática-Traducción es simplemente una etiqueta histórica arbitraria, desarrollada por teóricos para abarcar la historia de la enseñanza de idiomas desde 1790 hasta 1950. Así, se revisan críticamente distintas referencias a la Gramática-Traducción para demostrar que emergen como inferencias basadas en evidencia parcial para dar cuenta de la existencia de tal metodología. La asunción acrítica de que la Gramática-Traducción sí existió, y de que es el modelo negativo de práctica docente que debe ser evitado a toda costa, refleja un interés ideológico y nocivo por parte de teóricos y profesores.

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