Impacto de la pandemia en el aprendizaje: reflexiones desde la psicología educativa

Impact of the pandemic on learning: reflections from educational psychology

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Virgelina Castellanos-Páez
Rocío Abello-Correa
Mario Fernando Gutiérrez-Romero
Solanlly Ochoa-Angrino
Tatiana Rojas Ospina
Hernando Taborda-Osorio

Resumen

A partir de la pandemia de covid-19, los gobiernos reglamentaron el aislamiento preventivo obligatorio como una medida para minimizar la propagación del virus SARS-CoV-2. El objetivo del artículo es reflexionar acerca de las consecuencias de este tipo de medidas sobre el desarrollo y el aprendizaje en estudiantes de diferentes niveles educativos, con el fin de proponer posibles adaptaciones educativas que se requieren ante el retorno de la comunidad educativa a la presencialidad. La reflexión estuvo alimentada por dos fuentes: revisión de literatura sobre el tema y avances en investigaciones psicoeducativas de algunos de los autores del presente texto. Las consecuencias identificadas son esencialmente negativas para el desarrollo cognitivo, las funciones ejecutivas, el desempeño en matemáticas y la salud mental. Como agravantes se identificaron el bajo capital social y cultural de las familias, las limitaciones en el acceso y uso de las herramientas digitales, deficiente formación de los docentes en el uso de las tecnologías con fines pedagógicos y dificultades de autorregulación en los estudiantes.

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